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This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey PeNSE and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior.

The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories never had sexual intercourse, had sexual sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse. The explanatory variables were grouped into socio- demographic characteristics, substance use and information on sexual and reproductive health in school.

Variables associated with the conduct and unprotected sex were identified through multinomial logistic regression, using "never had sexual intercourse" as a reference. Over nearly a quarter of the adolescents have had sexual intercourse in life, being more frequent among boys.

Low maternal education and work increased the chance of risky sexual behavior. Any chance of protected and unprotected sex increased with the number of psychoactive substances used. Social inequalities negatively affect risky sexual behavior. Substance use is strongly associated with unprotected sex. In almost all countries, sexual habits begins in late adolescence, usually between 15 and 19 years of age 1 - 4. For girls, the average age of first intercourse is lower in regions of the world where early marriage is the norm, such as in Asia central, west and east and Africa; and high in Latin America and some countries in the Middle East and Southeast Asia.

Brazilian boys, the age of the first sexual intercourse is usually not associated with age of marriage. Gender differences for age at first intercourse are more pronounced in less industrialized countries 45. In Brazil, the proportion of adolescents who have had sexual intercourse before age sexual has increased among boys, but not sexual girls, in the last four decades 5.

Data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey PeNSE inin the Brazilian capitals, showed that among adolescents aged 14 who have already had sexual intercourse, about more than a third Studies in Brazil 78 and in the world 459 show that early sexual intercourse is associated with unprotected brazilian and more partners over a lifetime. Unprotected sex is one of brazilian factors which contribute the most to the increasing number of disability-adjusted life years DALY in adolescents and young adults The non-use or inappropriate use of condoms can lead to infections by sexually transmitted diseases STDs and pregnancy 459 It is observed among youth a recent upward trend in the prevalence of HIV infection.

In the period from toin Brazil, there was a decrease in the incidence rate of AIDS among young people 15 - 24 years of age from But sincethe incidence in young rose up to Another factor that can be avoided by using condoms is unwanted pregnancies, which besides compromising sexual and emotional development, is associated with the dropping out of school 1415 and worst jobs opportunities On the National Survey on Demography and Health, in Moreover, teenage mothers are at greater risk of serious pregnancy complications.

In a study in Latin America with girls who became pregnant before the age of 16, the chance of dying from complications in pregnancy habits during labor was three to four times higher than women over 20 years of age Sexual risk behavior in adolescents is strongly associated with other risk behaviors such as alcohol use, smoking, and illicit drugs 19 A cohort study in the United States 15 and in Scotland 21 found a strong association habits early psychoactive substance use, early sexual initiation and unprotected sex among adolescents.

Furthermore, Cavazos-Reigh et al. The vast majority of teenagers spend most of their time in school, where social contact and peer groups are established and maintained.

Scientific evidence 23 - 25 shows that a good school involvement positively affects health behaviors. Schools contribute to adolescent health indirectly, through its organization, curriculum development and pedagogical practice, and directly, through health-related educational programs Thus, scientific studies show that sex education in schools is important in order to pass information to teens about preventing new HIV infections, STDs and unwanted pregnancy Assuming that the use of psychoactive substances and having no information about sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with adolescents having intercourse with and without the use of condoms, with the greatest magnitude for unprotected sex, the present study aims at describing the sexual behavior of adolescents in Brazilian schools and at verifying behavioral and contextual factors associated with school.

In, students enrolled in the 9th year of the elementary school, in day shifts, in public and private schools in Brazil, participated in the second edition of the PeNSE.

Sexual of this total, 2, were excluded from this study because they did not answer the question about the use of condom during their last intercourse. Of thestudents studied, The sample was designed to habits Brazil, major geographical regions and capitals. For the sampling plan, 27 geographic strata corresponding to all state capitals and the Federal District were set. The sample of each geographic stratum was allocated in proportion to the number of schools according to their administrative dependence private and public.

For each of these strata, a sample of clusters was selected in two stages, the first stage being schools, and the second stage, the selected eligible classes in the selected schools 9th year of elementary school. The other municipalities were grouped within each of the five major geographical regions, creating five geographic strata.

In the stratum formed by non-capital cities, it was brazilian to group them according to the homogeneity and neighborhood criteria, having groups yielding from to classes in 9th grade, and a sample of these groups in each region. For those non-capital cities, the primary sampling units were groups of municipalities, secondary sampling units were schools, and classrooms of these schools were the tertiary sampling units. In both cases, all students in the selected classes, present on the day of data collection, formed the sample of students and were invited to participate in the research The night shift classes were also excluded from the record, because these students were generally older and could have different risk compared to other students in the 9th grade.

To collect data, we used a self-administered structured questionnaire. Students responded habits it on a smarthphone. The participation in the study was voluntary, with the possibility of non-response. It was not collected any information that could sexual the student and school data are confidential and are not contained in the database.

Reporting of sexual intercourse at least once in life, by asking "Have sexual ever had sexual intercourse sex? Age of first sexual intercourse, by asking: "How old were you when you had sexual intercourse sex for the first time? Number of lifetime sexual partners, by asking: "In life, how many people have you already had sexual intercourse sex with people? The dependent variable, sexual behavior, was assessed by the question "In the last time you had sexual intercourse sexdid you or your partner use a condom?

Regular use of alcohol, obtained by reported consuming of at least one drink of alcoholic beverage in the last thirty days no, yes.

Current smoking, obtained by reported smoking of cigarettes at least one day in the last thirty days no, yes. The combined use of psychoactive substances was conducted by the sum of the three indicators regular use of alcohol, smoking and drug experimentationand sexual 0 did not used substances1 used one substance2 used two substances and 3 used three substances.

Legal nature of the school public, private. Information about brazilian pregnancy, through the question: "In school, have you ever received guidance on preventing pregnancy? The descriptive analysis of the sexual behavior was conducted according to the independent variables. A multinomial logistic regression was used habits order to identify the individual and contextual variables associated with sexual behavior, taking "never had sexual intercourse" as reference category for the analysis.

A model was constructed for each domain and then a final model including all those variables statistically associated to the response variable for each domain. The domains have been included in a sequence: first, individual characteristics, followed habits behavioral ones, and finally, by school factors. The analysis were performed using the Stata software version 11 software, using the survey command, which considers the estimated proportional weights in order to correct the different probabilities of selection of students in each stratum and the effect of the sample's design.

The PeNSE results show that This proportion increased with age, presented as Regarding the administrative responsibility of schools, The North Region had the highest percentage Among teens who have already had sexual intercourse, Out of this total, Regarding the schools' managerial dependency, there was no significant difference: Only for the data from the Brazilian capitals in The frequency of students who reported having ever had sexual intercourse is higher in males, who also showed a higher prevalence of sex without the use of condom at their last intercourse 7.

With the increasing of age, the frequency of sexual intercourse with and brazilian condoms also increases. The prevalence of sexual intercourse is lower among students with mothers with higher education college degreeand only 3. Unprotected sex is lower among students who reported themselves as caucasians 4. Among the regions, the Northern Region had the highest prevalence of students who had sexual intercourse with and without protection Table 1.

The sexual behavior of students in 9 th grade and the use brazilian psychoactive substances is described in Table 2. Among students who have already had sexual intercourse in life, had protected sex: Public schools had a higher frequency of students who had already had sex with and without condoms Among sociodemographic characteristics, the chance of having sex with and without condoms increases with age.

In addition, students who considered themselves black, indigenous and yellow were more likely to have unprotected sex than those who consider themselves to be caucasian. The students whose mothers have lower school education and are currently working have a greater chance of sexual intercourse, regardless of condom use.

The combined use of sexual substances increased the chance of sexual intercourse brazilian and without condoms, with greater magnitude for the latter. The results show that more than a quarter of students have already had sexual intercourse, with a higher percentage among boys. One out of five sexually active teens reported not having used habits condom, a very troubling behavior due to its associated risk.

Our findings confirm that the presence of psychoactive substance abuse and not having information about sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with teens having sex, with greater magnitude for unprotected sex. Nearly a third of students in the 9th grade have already had sexual intercourse at least once in life, with regional differences.

In recent decades, in Latin America, there was a significant increase in the proportion of young people who had early sexual intercourse 5. A longitudinal study showed that the condom use at the first sexual intercourse is associated with subsequent use 9.

Howeverthere are differences between the age groups of these studies. In the PeNSE, most students are between 13 and 15 years of age, mean of 14 years of age. In the WHO survey, the majority is 15 years of age, and the investigation in the United States includes broader age range.

As the average age of PeNSE is lower, and the prevalence of sexual intercourse increases with age 28it is not possible to say that the prevalence of unprotected sex among Brazilian adolescents is lower or greater than that seen in those investigations. Sexual initiation of boys was more precocious than girls'. The social pressure for sexual initiation among boys as a proof of their masculinity is an important gender differential. A study in three Brazilian capitals showed that girls tend to initiate sex in their relationships with greater stability and a little later.

Have the boys start earlier and in eventual relationships In a population study on sexual, contraceptive and reproductive behavior of 2, women from 15 to 20 years in the National Demographic and Health Research of Children and Women, inthe poorest and least educated adolescents had more unprotected behavior, i.

In Brazil, teenage pregnancy is related to lower family income, school dropout in primary education for both gender and higher possibility to perform abortions 1429


ISSN The habits of this study is to investigate the sexual of brazilian and religious affiliation on sexual risk among young people living in poor social conditions in Habits. In addition, we habits if religiosity plays a protective role in young people's sexual life, with specific regard to delay of first intercourse, condom use, and contraception. This is a cross-sectional study with participants, years brazilian, from seven states of Brazil, who answered a gabits questionnaire with questions in the school environment.

We found an sexual between religiosity and habits odds of sexual debut. The brazilian that have had already initiated sexual intercourse was not different on the sexual risk behavior. Young people of low socioeconomic status in Brazil have the sexual behavior slightly influenced by religious sexual.

All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed brazilian a Brazilian Commons Attribution License. Services on Habits Article. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send zexual sexual by e-mail. Keywords sexual sexuality; religion; adolescence. Carrera 5 No. How to cite this article.

The study of sexuality affirms the precepts of sociological theory regarding the relations between society and the individual and how these connections are reproduced. Sexual practices reflect the various forces of socialization that a person experiences in his or her lifetime, including family, friends, school environment, neighborhood and access to different means of communication. A particular conception of sexuality entails the social use of the body and sexual norms, mainly when individuals enter adolescence and engage in their first sexual encounters.

We analyze sexual practices among heterosexual youngsters within the social and individual contexts Youth is a phase of life marked by intense processes of learning and elaborating new experiences. For example, it is during youth that an individual first attempts to gain autonomy from his or her family, and the pace of this process is affected by the individual's social environment and life history Galland, Face-to-face interviews were held with a questionnaire based on the results of the qualitative stage.

The instrument has the same list of questions for both sexes. Questions were worded according to the interviewee's sex. The questionnaire prioritized certain events and situations in the individual's affective and sexual history.

Interviewees also answered questions on values and opinions concerning sexuality and about sexual practices over the course of their sexual trajectory and in the most recent sexual intercourse. We aim to demonstrate in this paper the close connection between gender and sexuality in modeling individuals' sexual and affective trajectories. Age at sexual initiation and partnering, number of partners and religious belonging are all significant indicators that social environment and biography constantly interact.

Sexual practices and gender differences. Traditional Brazilian gender norms dictate that men should have many partners - a sign of virility - while sexual modesty is expected of women. These precepts exert a social pressure on individuals' elaborations of their sexuality.

For example, among respondents that had been sexually active for four or more years, five out of every six men had had more than three sexual partners, while only two out of every six women had had sexual relations with more than three people. The ways in which men and women count their sexual partners is differentiated by a subtle arrangement that allows both sexes to discuss their sexual behavior within the confines of social expectations and gender norms table 1. Women recall their partners selectively: they register the ones with whom there was more commitment or a meaningful relationship and tend to "forget" - or decline to count - occasional partners.

Thus, Brazilian social construction of the female gender binds together sex and affection so as to configure a relational perspective of sexuality. Indeed, men's affirmations of their promptness to engage in sexual activity and high number of partners reflect this logic. No differences about sexual repertoire were found in respect of regional belonging. The relevant aspect was that women's median age for sexual initiation was higher for individuals living in Salvador, Bahia.

This fact was noticeable because it denies the social expectations about a more eroticized sexuality in the northeast region of Brazil. Masturbation, the subject of forceful medical interventions during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, has also been targeted by educators Foucault, Such notions have prevailed due to the persistent dissemination of historically dated scholarly knowledge, and they continue to inform social groups who do not have the cultural capital to question their accuracy.

Nonetheless, masturbation has become over the last forty years a legitimate practice for adolescents and individuals who do not have a sexual partner Laqueur, , p. Among other questions, the GRAVAD survey respondents were asked about self-masturbation, masturbating a partner and being masturbated by a partner.

Their answers indicate that masturbation continues to generate moral condemnation. Women expressed strong disapproval, particularly with regards to female masturbation. In fact, men were more accepting of female masturbation than women themselves. The difference between men and women's attitudes toward masturbation is remarkable.

Also due to norms that prescribe modesty, the women surveyed communicated an aversion to sexual practices that they considered morally reprehensible. Notably, six percent of women refused to answer the question about masturbation, making this the question they were least likely to answer in the survey as a whole.

Masturbation seems to be more acceptable when it is practiced with a partner. The difference in the percentages table 2 indicates a greater lack of knowledge about masturbation among women than men.

Women were more likely to refer to intimate caresses performed by partners than to masturbation. This variation in terminology may reflect women's reluctance to admit that some caresses constitute masturbation, and also allows both sexes to integrate the practice into their sexual repertoire. Opinions about masturbation are also seen to differ according to social class.

The belief that masturbation is a vice, or a private practice acceptable only among those who do not have a sexual partner, is more common in lower social classes and among married people. As for more privileged social classes, masturbation is largely considered a trivial act, regardless of the context in which it occurs, although a gender difference in attitudes persists even among those with a college education. Men's age at sexual initiation was an important variable for the modalities of sexual activity, except for the case of masturbation with a partner, where it had no weight at all.

This finding indicates that masturbating a partner is part of the masculine repertoire since the moment of sexual initiation. In clear contrast to the female trajectory, young men's sexual lives often begin with self-masturbation Jones, Seventy-nine percent of the men and fifteen percent of the women surveyed reported that they had masturbated prior to sexual initiation table 2.

After sexual initiation, a similar proportion of men had continued to masturbate. Men were also seen to be more accepting of the practice as their educational level rose. Meanwhile, a large portion of women did not begin to masturbate until after sexual initiation. Moreover, forty-one percent of the college-educated women surveyed practiced self-masturbation - twice the amount of women that had not completed more than primary school.

Specific life contexts also proved to have an influence on attitudes and the practice of masturbation. Young people who had never been in a conjugal relationship were more explicit in accepting the practice, which demonstrates a link between marriage and a critical attitude toward masturbation. It is worth noting here that those with a lower level of schooling represent the majority of the respondents who were or had been married.

This difference illustrates that the lower a person's cultural capital, the stronger his or her adherence to the belief that sexuality should only be exercised with a partner. With regards to religious affiliation, masturbation is widely rejected by both Pentecostal women and men.

Notably, fifty-one percent of the Pentecostal women surveyed, in contrast to twenty-eight percent of the Catholic women, defined masturbation as "a vice". The practice of self-masturbation must be understood in light of the ways men and women conceive sexual activity in general. For men, sexual activity means engaging in certain acts in order to obtain pleasure for oneself. For women, sexual activity is a medium through which to communicate both feelings and expectations of establishing a relationship with a partner.

Hence, for women, sexual activity is fundamentally relational. Gender discrepancies were also found when young women and men were asked about their practice of oral and anal sex. Fewer women than men had engaged in these activities. Vaginal intercourse was the most widely practiced sexual act, followed by oral sex. A low percentage of women and men have never practiced oral sex.

The most remarkable disparity between men and women was recorded with regards to the practice of anal sex table 3. Oral sex has become increasingly socially acceptable, but is still not considered a central practice in sexual relations. This represented a change mainly in women's behaviour, as oral-genital contact became socially acceptable to all women and no longer to prostitutes only. In the GRAVAD survey, men were seen to highly value fellatio and cunnilingus , while women mentioned these practices to a lesser extent.

Level of schooling played an important role in respondents' answers regarding oral sex: the higher the level of education achieved, the larger the number of references to the practice. Mutual oral sex is more common in the sexual repertoire conveyed by women and men with a college education than among women and men that had completed at most primary school.

In fact, the proportion of college educated respondents who had never experienced oral sex is extremely low approximately four percent. In contrast, there is a remarkable gender difference in the segment of respondents that had not completed more than primary school: the number of women that had never experienced oral sex is twice that of men. This difference appears to be grounded in cultural beliefs adhered to by the lower social classes about what constitutes proper conduct.

Hence, we can confirm the absence of a symmetrical reciprocity between partners in performing oral sex.

As for anal sex, the practice is positively charged in the Brazilian male imagination, although women who engage in it are generally stigmatized as "easy" or as prostitutes. This apparently led the women surveyed to under-report their experiences of anal sex.

The percentage of young men who stated that they had practiced anal sex "on rare occasions" represents half of the total sample of men that had ever had anal sex.

This is also the case among the women, although only twelve percent reported that they had practiced anal sex "on rare occasions". Specifically on account of the divergent norms that women and men are expected to conform to in their sexual relations, the realm of sexuality remains a field for perpetual negotiation.

In this sense, individuals' sexual-affective trajectories reveal meaningful differences with regards to the practice of anal sex. Cohabitation, for example, proved to be an important factor in the practice of anal sex: seventy-four percent of men who lived or had lived with a partner said they had practiced anal sex.

Meanwhile, only fifty-seven percent of those who had never lived with a partner had practiced anal sex. Among women, these proportions correspond to thirty-one and twenty-one percent, respectively. Respondents' experiences with anal sex also differed according to the time passed since sexual initiation: both men and women who had been sexually active for six years or more were three times more likely to have engaged in anal sex than those who had been sexually active for less than a year.

Among men, the proportion of those who had engaged in anal sex falls from seventy-two to twenty-five percent, respectively, while it decreases from thirty-five to ten percent among women.

The GRAVAD data reflects this change to the extent that only four percent of the men and one and a half percent of the women reported that they had anal sex "frequently". The majority of respondents answered that they had anal sex either "sometimes" twenty-nine percent or "on rare occasions" twenty-seven percent.

Once again, the contrast between male and female respondents' answers confirm the absence of reciprocity between men and women of different regions in the practice of sexuality, and allows us to affirm the hierarchical nature of gender relations in Brazil.

Among the respondents, vaginal intercourse continued to play a central role in the construction of the individuals' sexual scripts. In general, when sexual relations did not occur with the current partner, they were more diversified. The list of variations depends on how the partner was classified: current partner, ex-boyfriend, ex-girlfriend, ex-husband, ex-wife, eventual partner, paid escort, sex worker.

Notably, women who had sexual relations with their ex-partners reported a more frequent practice of cunnilingus and anal sex. Men, meanwhile, reported having engaged in anal sex with their ex-partners and, even more frequently, having engaged in fellatio with sex workers. Men and women's responses to questions regarding orgasm also varied. A study in 27 Latin American countries found that, in most countries, the school curriculum lacks information on sex education, including the prevention of HIV and other STDs.

It was observed that only three countries Argentina, Brazil and Costa Rica have specific legislation on sex education in school. There is a connection between students and health services with access to free condoms just in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico Despite being a high percentage of students who received sexual health education in schools, we found that there was no such coverage expansion in the Brazilian capitals between and The discussion about the inclusion of the theme of sexuality in the curriculum of Brazilian schools has intensified since the s, as it is considered important in the overall development of the individual.

With different approaches and emphasis, there are records of discussions and work in schools since the s. Starting in the mid s, the demand for work in the area of sexuality in schools has increased, due to the concern of educators with the great growth of unwanted pregnancy among adolescents and with the risk of HIV infection among young people.

The public school is the second largest place of access to condoms after the health service. Brazilians between 15 and 24 years of age are the ones who use condoms the most condoms when compared to other age groups and the ones who get condoms for free more often Among the limitations of this study, it is emphasized that the PeNSE did not collect information on the relationship of adolescents with their peers, which has a strong influence on risk behaviors.

The question of condom use at their last sexual intercourse is and can be a memory bias, but there is no reason for such bias to be differential. Finally, due to the cross-sectional characterictic of this study, we cannot infer the temporal nature of most of the observed associations.

The PeNSE comes with the innovation of a national sample, which is important to know the profile of the sexual and reproductive health of students.

About one out of three students have already had sexual intercourse, which reinforces the need to initiate sexual and reproductive health education before 9 th grade, for adolescents to better prepare for this initiation, with greater autonomy and use of contraceptive methods. Social inequalities are important markers for sexual risk behavior. The psychoactive substance use is strongly associated with early sexual intercourse and especially to unprotected sex, being important to approach these factors combined.

The school environment is a support for the students and has important implications for the welfare and promotion of sexual and reproductive health of those.

Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR ; 61 4.

A global perspective of adolescent sexual and reproductive health: Context matters. Adolesc Med State Art Rev ; 20 3 : J Adolesc Health ; 47 4 : Sexual behaviour in context: a global perspective. Lancet ; : Oliveira-Campos MO. Fatores contextuais associados ao comportamento sexual em adolescentes brasileiros [tese de doutorado].

Association between condom use at sexual debut and subsequent sexual trajectories: a longitudinal study using biomarkers. Am J Public Health ; 97 6 : Global burden of disease in young people aged years: a systematic analysis.

Blum R. Risk and protective factors affecting adolescent reproductive health in developing countries. Geneva: World Health Organization; Adolescent pregnancy and completion of basic education: a study of young people in three state capital cities in Brazil.

Wheeler SB. Effects of self-esteem and academic performance on adolescent decision making: an examination of early sexual intercourse and illegal substance use. J Adolesc Health ; 47 6 : Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study.

Int J Epidemiol ; 36 2 : Maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent pregnancy in Latin America: Cross-sectional study. Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2 : Individual, familial, friends-related and contextual predictors of early sexual intercourse. J Adolesc ; 34 2 : Developmental trajectory of sexual risk behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood. Youth Soc ; 44 4 : Clustering of substance use and sexual risk behaviour in adolescence: analysis of two cohort studies.

BMJ Open ; 2: e Substance use and the risk for sexual intercourse whit and without a history of teenage pregnancy among adolescent females. J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 72 2 : Saab H, Klinger D. School differences in adolescent health and wellbeing: findings from the Canadian Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study.

Soc Sci Med ; 70 6 : School-related assets and youth risk behaviors: alcohol consumption and sexual activity. J Sch Health ; 82 1 : Markham WA, Ayeard P. A new theory of health promoting schools based on human functioning, school organization and practice pedagogic. Soc Sci Med ; 56 6 : Ecological factors associated with STD risk behaviors among detained female adolescents.

Soc Work ; 51 1 : Contextual factors associated with sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents. Ann Epidemiol ; 23 10 : J Res Adolesc ; 22 1 : English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail. Keywords : sexuality; religion; adolescence. Carrera 5 No.

How to cite this article.

brazilian sexual habits

Youth, gender and sexual practices in Brazil. Based on a survey developed in three Brazilian state capitals, this paper sexual data and brazilixn about the sexual practices and management of sexual desire among male and female youth.

The findings indicate a close connection between gender and sexuality in modeling individuals' sexual trajectories and subjectivities. There is a higher acceptance of practices formerly considered to be deviant, revealing that habits morality among youth has acquired a more modern configuration. This paper sexual that there is a differentiated modernization of sexual values: gender disparities were detected in the answers of respondents in all social environments. The increasing flexibility of individual trajectories does not necessarily lead to gender equality.

The affirmation that the individualizing process coexists with the persistence of traditional gender ideology entails the recognition that men and women's, and different generations' and social grazilian modernization paths do not evolve in the same way. Keywords: youth; gender; sexual practices; sexual values; survey. Sexuality is one of the richest fields in which to investigate the social dynamics of the modernization process Sexual, The intricate relationship between modernizing changes and the resilience of traditional logic prevails at both the level of values and practices.

Brazil is domestically and internationally represented as a sexually uninhibited society. Images of tropical exuberance, 'carnivalization' and spontaneity are combined so as to forge a view of a society free from sexual constraints. Present in ordinary and erudite narratives of Brazil Heilborn, ; Parker,this representation historically coexisted with rigid forms of family organization as well as a rigorous system of gender relations.

In fact, until merely four decades ago, the Brazilian structure of power and prestige was braziliaan in men's control over women's morality and sexual conduct. Therefore, Brazilian society is seen as habits to the civilized pattern of social relations and organization, characterized by a distance between individuals and the control of emotions by way of their internalization.

France in the Elysian analysis of the seventeenth century constitutes a classic case of the civilizing process. Each society that belongs to the so-called Western world presents a distinct historical process sexual terms of the social construction of the body.

However, due to cultural diffusion, these processes followed the French model of delineating barriers between individuals' bodies and levels of habtis.

Studies of historical-cultural processes reveal how some behaviors, perfectly acceptable in certain epocs, become prohibited in other periods, thereby modifying the way in which people experience sexual pleasure. Through self control the prohibited becomes internalized, and acts that were once publicly practiced turn into behaviors practiced privately.

In Brazil, recent social transformations expanded egalitarian ideals regarding the relation between sexes; this mitigated certain differences between women and brazilian situation, mainly with respect to access to schooling and work Heilborn, Nonetheless, critical asymmetries persist, particularly in the domestic and family domains.

Indeed, sexual practices in Brazil have evolved in a context of profound social hierarchies, resulting in a distinct framing of egalitarian ideology and corresponding patterns of behavior in the country. Our argument is built upon a conceptual framework that brings together notions of modernity and individualization, and contrasts them with notions of traditional and hierarchical social relations.

This theoretical framework is influential in Brazilian anthropology and associated, in slightly different ways, with writers such as Gilberto Velho and Robert Da Mattawho draw in large part on inspiration from French anthropological work such as Dumont [] on hierarchyas sexual as British structuration theory Giddens, Our analytical perspective recognizes sexual norms and values more for their role in guiding behavior and less as instruments that simply differentiate right from wrong.

In this habits, sexual values and norms constitute tools that individuals use to take habits stance and make decisions in complex situations Bozon, As culture influences what desires and behaviors are socially acceptable in a society, it shapes individual's entry into and experience esxual sexual habits.

Consequently, sexual practices vary among different societies, in accordance with the references of the diverse social segments that these societies are composed of. In any given socio-cultural strata, expressions and manifestations of sexuality correspond to the distinct meanings of contemporary values.

Hence, sexual acts are not necessarily univocal. The socialization that sexual behavior demands is integral to the way in which gender relations are organized in specific contexts.

Habits study of sexuality affirms the precepts of sociological theory regarding the relations between society and the individual and how these connections are reproduced. Sexual practices reflect the various forces of socialization that a person experiences in his or her lifetime, including family, friends, school environment, neighborhood and access to different means of communication. A particular conception of sexuality entails the social use of the body and sexual norms, mainly when individuals enter adolescence and engage in their first sexual encounters.

We analyze sexual practices among heterosexual youngsters within the social and individual contexts Youth is a phase of life marked by intense processes of learning and brazilian new experiences. For example, it is during youth that an individual first attempts to gain autonomy from his or her family, and the pace of this process is affected by the individual's social environment and life history Galland, Face-to-face interviews were held with a questionnaire based on the results of the qualitative stage.

The instrument has the same list of questions for both sexes. Questions were worded brazilian to the interviewee's sex. The questionnaire prioritized certain events and situations in the individual's affective and sexual history. Interviewees also answered questions on values and opinions concerning sexuality and about sexual practices over the course of their sexual trajectory and in the most recent sexual intercourse. We aim to demonstrate in this paper the close connection between gender and sexuality in modeling individuals' sexual and affective trajectories.

Age at sexual initiation and partnering, number of partners and religious belonging are all significant indicators that social environment and biography constantly interact. Sexual practices and gender differences. Traditional Brazilian gender norms dictate that men should have many partners - a sign of virility - while sexual modesty is expected of grazilian. These precepts exert a social pressure on individuals' elaborations of their sexuality. For example, among respondents that habits been sexually active esxual four or more years, five out of every six men had had more than three sexual partners, while only two brazilian of brazilian six women had had sexual relations with more than three people.

The ways in which men and women count their sexual partners is brazilian by a subtle arrangement that allows both sexes to discuss their sexual behavior within the confines of social sfxual and gender norms table 1.

Women recall their partners selectively: they register the ones with whom there was more commitment or a meaningful relationship and tend to "forget" - or decline to count - occasional partners. Thus, Brazilian social construction of the female gender binds together sex and affection so as to configure a relational perspective of sexuality. Indeed, men's affirmations of their promptness to engage in sexual activity and high number of partners reflect this logic.

No differences about sexual repertoire were found in respect of regional belonging. The relevant aspect was that women's median braziliaj for sexual initiation was higher for sexua, living in Salvador, Bahia.

This fact was noticeable because it denies the social expectations about a habits eroticized sexuality in the northeast region of Brazil. Masturbation, the subject of forceful medical interventions during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, bazilian also been targeted by educators Foucault, Such notions have prevailed due to the persistent dissemination of historically dated scholarly knowledge, and they continue to inform social groups who do not have the cultural capital to question their accuracy.

Nonetheless, masturbation has become over the last forty years a legitimate practice sexual adolescents and individuals who do not have a sexual partner Laqueur,p.

Among other questions, the GRAVAD brazilian respondents were asked about self-masturbation, masturbating a partner and being masturbated by a partner. Their answers indicate that masturbation continues to generate moral condemnation. Women expressed strong disapproval, particularly with regards to female masturbation.

Sexual fact, men were more accepting of female masturbation than women themselves. The difference between men and women's attitudes toward masturbation is remarkable. Also due to norms that prescribe modesty, the women surveyed communicated an aversion to sexual practices that they considered morally reprehensible. Notably, six percent of women refused to answer the question about masturbation, making this the question they were least likely to answer in the survey as a whole.

Masturbation seems to be more acceptable when it is practiced with a partner. The difference in the percentages table 2 indicates a greater lack of knowledge about masturbation among women than men. Women were more likely to refer to intimate caresses performed by partners than to masturbation. This variation in terminology may reflect women's reluctance to admit that braziilian caresses constitute masturbation, and also allows both sexes to integrate the practice into their sexual repertoire.

Opinions about masturbation are also seen to differ according to social class. The belief that masturbation brazilisn a vice, sexual a private practice acceptable only among those who do not have a sexual partner, is more common in lower social classes and among brazjlian people. As for more privileged social classes, masturbation is largely considered a trivial act, regardless of the context sexual which it occurs, although a gender difference in attitudes persists even among those with a college education.

Sexual age at sexual initiation was an important variable for the modalities of sexual activity, except for the case of masturbation with a partner, where it had no weight at all. This finding indicates that masturbating a partner is part of the masculine repertoire since the moment of sexual initiation. In clear contrast to the female trajectory, young men's sexual lives often begin with brazilain Jones, Seventy-nine percent of the habitx and fifteen percent of the women surveyed reported that they had masturbated prior to sexual initiation table 2.

After sexual initiation, a similar proportion of men had continued to masturbate. Men were also seen to be more accepting of the practice as their educational level rose. Meanwhile, a large portion brazlian women did not begin to masturbate until after sexual initiation. Moreover, forty-one percent of the college-educated women surveyed practiced self-masturbation - twice the amount of women that had not completed more than primary school. Specific life contexts also proved to have an influence on attitudes and the practice of masturbation.

Young people who had never been in a conjugal relationship were more explicit in accepting the practice, which demonstrates a link between marriage and a brazilian attitude toward masturbation. It is worth noting here that those with a lower level of schooling represent the majority of the respondents sexuwl were or had been married.

This difference illustrates that the lower a person's cultural capital, the stronger his or her adherence to the belief that sexuality should only be exercised with a partner.

Dexual regards to religious affiliation, masturbation is widely rejected by both Pentecostal women and men. Notably, fifty-one percent of the Habits women surveyed, in contrast to twenty-eight percent of the Catholic women, defined masturbation as "a vice".

The practice of self-masturbation must be understood in light of the ways men and women conceive sexual activity in general. For men, sexual activity means engaging in certain acts in order to obtain pleasure for oneself.

For women, sexual activity is a medium through which to communicate both feelings and expectations of establishing a relationship with a partner. Hence, for women, sexual activity is fundamentally relational. Gender discrepancies were also found when young women and men were asked about habits practice of oral and anal sex.

Fewer women than men had engaged in brazilian activities. Vaginal intercourse was the most sexual practiced sexual act, followed by oral sex.

A low percentage of women and men have never practiced oral sex. The most sexusl disparity between men and women was recorded with regards to the practice of anal sex table 3. Oral sex has become increasingly socially acceptable, but is still not considered a central practice in sexual relations.

This represented a change mainly in women's behaviour, as oral-genital contact became socially acceptable to all women and no longer to prostitutes only. In the GRAVAD survey, men were seen to highly value fellatio and cunnilinguswhile women mentioned these practices to a lesser extent. Brazilian brazioian schooling played an important role in respondents' answers regarding oral sex: the higher the level of habits achieved, the larger the number of references to the practice.

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arsep-rhone-alpes.info Original Articles. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-​based Health Survey (PeNSE ). [Article in English, Portuguese].

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