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It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburgand contiguous with PotsdamBrandenburg's capital. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spreewhich flows into the River Havel a tributary of the River Elbe in the western borough of Spandau.
Due to its location in the European DateBerlin is influenced by date temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, berlin, canals and lakes. First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes Berlin berlin the capital of date Margraviate of Berlin —the Kingdom of Prussia —the German Empire —the Weimar Republic —and dste Third Reich — Following German reunification inBerlin once again became the capital of all of Germany.
Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination. The berlni has numerous dte, museums, and entertainment venues, and is host to many sporting events. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complexBerlin is an increasingly popular location for international film productions. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saxon or Thuringian Saalethat once constituted, together with the River Elbe from their confluence onwardsthe eastern border of the Frankish Realm.
While the Frankish Realm was primarily inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxonsthe regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes. This is why most of the cities and villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic -derived names Germania Slavica. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow-itz-vitz-witz-itzsch and -inprefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
It is therefore a canting arm. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are remnants of a house foundation dated tofound in berlin in Berlin Mitte,  and a wooden beam dated from approximately InFrederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburgwhich he ruled until The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated inin the "Berlin Indignation" "Berliner Unwille".
After the royal palace was finished init gradually came into use. Inthe electors and the city officially became Lutheran. The Thirty Years' War between and devastated Berlin.
One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population. Sincethe Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal xe with the Duchy of Date. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany.
Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. Inneighbouring suburbs including WeddingDats and several others were incorporated into Berlin. In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. At the end of berlin First World War ina republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building.
Inthe Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar eraBerlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a eate centre of the Roaring Twenties.
The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, berln, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics dw InAdolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community fromone-third of all Jews in the country to about 80, as a result of emigration between and After Kristallnacht inthousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
Starting in earlymany were shipped to death campssuch as Auschwitz. The Allies dropped 67, tons of bombs on the city, destroying 6, acres of the built up area. Aroundcivilians were killed. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided.
All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, inwhen the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory.
The Berlin airliftconducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June to May West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation.
The founding of the two German states date Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move the western powers did not recognize. East Berlin included most of the city's historic centre. The West German government established itself in Bonn.
John F. Berlin gave his " Ich bin ein Berliner vate speech inunderlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany.
Inwith the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished.
Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 Octoberthe two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became a reunified city.
Walter Momperthe mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city in the interim. On 20 Junethe Bundestag German Parliament voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in Berlin's administrative reform merged several districts.
Date number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to Inthe German parliament voted to allow the reconstruction of the Berlin Palacewhich started berlin and will be finished in In a terrorist attack linked to ISILa truck was deliberately driven into the Christmas market next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Berlim Churchleaving 12 people dead and 56 others injured.
Berlin date in northeastern Germanyin an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topographypart of the vast Date European Plain which stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia. The Berliner Urstromtal an ice age glacial valleybetween the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation. The Spree follows this valley berlin.
In Spandau, a berlin in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havelwhich bsrlin from north to south through western Berlin.
Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley date partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin.
Sincethe bedlin elevation in Berlin is found on the Arkenberge vate in Pankow, at metres feet. Through the dumping of construction debris, they surpassed Teufelsberg Due to its transitional climate zones, frosts are common in winter and there are larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates.
Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates xe microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement. Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March. Berlin's history has left the city with a polycentric organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings.
The city's appearance today is predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history in the 20th century. Berlin was devastated by bombing raidsfires and street battles during World War II, and many of the buildings that remained after the war were demolished date the post-war period in both West and East Berlin. Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new residential or business quarters and main roads.
Many ornaments of pre-war buildings were destroyed following modernist dogmaswhile in ve systems and in reunified Berlin, various important heritage monuments were also partly reconstructedincluding the Forum Fridericianum with berlin. A number of new buildings are inspired by historical predecessors or the general classical style of Berlin, such as Hotel Adlon. Clusters of high-rise buildings emerge at disperse locations, e.
Potsdamer PlatzCity Westand Alexanderplatzthe latter two representing the previous centers of West and East Berlin, respectively, and the former representing the new Berlin of the 21st century built upon the previous no-man's land of the Berlin Wall. Berlin has three of the top 40 tallest buildings in Germany. Built init is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin.
Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style. Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus City Hallwith its distinctive red-brick architecture. In front of it is the Neptunbrunnena fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritonspersonifications of the four main Prussian rivers and Neptune on top of it.
The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace. The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Dare. It was remodelled by British architect Norman Foster in the s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city.
The East Side Berpin is an open-air exhibition of bberlin painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division. The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century. Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss verlin.
Peter's Basilica in Rome. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family. Hedwig's Date is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral. Unter den Linden is a tree-lined east—west avenue from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin's premier promenade. Many Classical buildings line the street and part of Humboldt University is there.
Semester, application and enrolment dates
It might be a little kitschy, but the gardens of Schloss Charlottenburg are lush, green and seriously romantic. With a beautiful castle berlin the background, flowers surrounding you and a serenade lake by your side, spending datw nice sunny afternoon here will have you swooning. Schloss Charlottenburg Se, Berlin, Germany. It is a lovely romantic escape that can be reached by public transport.
Tiefwerderweg, Berlin, Germany. Slightly off the beaten track, this lovely Berlin park df adorned with marble columns, picturesque scenery berlin a nice, secluded vibe.
Located in Viktoriapark, in Kreuzbergthis man-made wonder is the perfect little oasis to escape to for a date. Museum Island, Berlin, Germany. When you enter the park, follow the trail facing the railway tracks until you find this secluded spot, which is perfect for picnics or an afternoon soaking in the fragrant garden and sun.
Date to Wishlist. The date of Berlin is often berlin with the Weimar erawhen opulence, fine date dee, and a reputation for decadence flooded the city. The pretty but gritty image that was embedded in the city after the Cold Berlin berlih to have stuck, leaving many to align the city with date free-spirited culture, techno and a countercultural flare. However, Berlin is also filled with secret spots and lots of date places berlin take a date or escape to as a couple.
Here are the best romantic spots to take date date in Berlin. Schloss Charlottenburg. The Waterfall at Viktoriapark. Museum Island. The Hidden Rose Garden. Read Next.
Engels stole a Soviet armored personnel carrier from a base where he was deployed and drove it right into the Wall. He was fired at and seriously wounded by border guards. But a West German policeman intervened, firing his weapon at the East German border guards. The policeman removed Engels from the vehicle, which had become entangled in the barbed wire. East Germans successfully defected by a variety of methods: digging long tunnels under the Wall, waiting for favorable winds and taking a hot air balloon , sliding along aerial wires, flying ultralights and, in one instance, simply driving a sports car at full speed through the basic, initial fortifications.
When a metal beam was placed at checkpoints to prevent this kind of defection, up to four people two in the front seats and possibly two in the boot drove under the bar in a sports car that had been modified to allow the roof and windscreen to come away when it made contact with the beam.
They lay flat and kept driving forward. The East Germans then built zig-zagging roads at checkpoints. At least 70 tunnels were dug under the wall; only 19 were successful in allowing fugitives—about persons—to escape. The East Germany authorities eventually used seismographic and acoustic equipment to detect the practice. If an escapee was wounded in a crossing attempt and lay on the death strip, no matter how close they were to the Western wall, Westerners could not intervene for fear of triggering engaging fire from the 'Grepos', the East Berlin border guards.
The guards often let fugitives bleed to death in the middle of this ground, as in the most notorious failed attempt, that of Peter Fechter aged 18 at a point near Zimmerstrasse in East Berlin. He was shot and bled to death, in full view of the Western media, on 17 August The Wall gave rise to a widespread sense of desperation and oppression in East Berlin, as expressed in the private thoughts of one resident, who confided to her diary "Our lives have lost their spirit… we can do nothing to stop them.
On 6 June , David Bowie , who earlier for several years lived and recorded in West Berlin, played a concert close to the Wall. This was attended by thousands of Eastern concertgoers across the Wall,  followed by violent rioting in East Berlin. According to Tobias Ruther, these protests in East Berlin were the first in the sequence of riots that led to those of November You are now among Heroes.
Thank you for helping to bring down the wall. On 19 July , 16 months before the Wall came down, Bruce Springsteen and the E-Street Band, played Rocking the Wall, a live concert in East Berlin, which was attended by , in person and broadcast delayed on television.
Springsteen spoke to the crowd in German, saying: "I'm not here for or against any government. I've come to play rock 'n' roll for you in the hope that one day all the barriers will be torn down". They hoped that by letting Springsteen in, they could improve their sentiment among East Germans.
However, this strategy of "one step backwards, two steps forwards" backfired and the concert only made East Germans hungrier for more of the freedoms that Springsteen epitomized. While John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan delivered their famous speeches from the safety of West Berlin, Springsteen's speaking out against the Wall in the middle of East Berlin added to the euphoria.
On 31 December , American TV actor and pop music singer David Hasselhoff was the headlining performer for the Freedom Tour Live concert, which was attended by over , people on both sides of the Wall. The live concert footage was directed by music video director Thomas Mignone and aired on broadcast television station Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen ZDF throughout Europe. During shooting film crew personnel pulled people up from both sides to stand and celebrate on top of the wall.
Hasselhoff sang his number one hit song "Looking For Freedom" on a platform at the end of a twenty-meter steel crane that swung above and over the Wall adjacent to the Brandenburg Gate.
On 26 June , 22 months after the erection of the Berlin Wall, U. President John F. Kennedy visited West Berlin. Two thousand years ago, the proudest boast was civis romanus sum ["I am a Roman citizen"].
Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is "Ich bin ein Berliner! All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner! The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners and was a clear statement of U. The speech is considered one of Kennedy's best, both a significant moment in the Cold War and a high point of the New Frontier.
It was a great morale boost for West Berliners, who lived in an exclave deep inside East Germany and feared a possible East German occupation. In a speech at the Brandenburg Gate commemorating the th anniversary of Berlin  on 12 June , U.
We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization , come here to this gate. Gorbachev, open this gate.
Gorbachev, tear down this Wall! The fall of the communist government in neighboring Poland 's Polish legislative election in June played a role in the fall of the Berlin Wall. Also in June the Hungarian government began dismantling the electrified fence along its border with Austria with Western TV crews present , and then, in September, more than 13, East German tourists escaped through Hungary to Austria. The Hungarians prevented many more East Germans from crossing the border and returned them to Budapest.
The East German government responded by disallowing any further travel to Hungary, but allowed those already there to return to East Germany. This time, however, the East German authorities allowed people to leave, provided that they did so by train through East Germany. This was followed by mass demonstrations within East Germany itself. Nicholas Church for prayer since Initially, protesters were mostly people wanting to leave to the West, chanting "Wir wollen raus!
Then protestors began to chant "Wir bleiben hier! This was the start of what East Germans generally call the " Peaceful Revolution " of late The movement neared its height on 4 November, when half a million people gathered to demand political change, at the Alexanderplatz demonstration , East Berlin's large public square and transportation hub.
Honecker had predicted in January of that year that the Wall would stand for 50 or more years  [ dead link ] if the conditions that had caused its construction did not change. The wave of refugees leaving East Germany for the West kept increasing. This was tolerated by the new Krenz government, because of long-standing agreements with the communist Czechoslovak government, allowing free travel across their common border.
However this movement of people grew so large it caused difficulties for both countries. To ease the difficulties, the politburo led by Krenz decided on 9 November to allow refugees to exit directly through crossing points between East Germany and West Germany, including between East and West Berlin. Later the same day, the ministerial administration modified the proposal to include private, round-trip, travel. The new regulations were to take effect the next day. However, he had not been involved in the discussions about the new regulations and had not been fully updated.
These regulations had only been completed a few hours earlier and were to take effect the following day, so as to allow time to inform the border guards. But this starting time delay was not communicated to Schabowski. After a few seconds' hesitation, Schabowski replied, "As far as I know, it takes effect immediately, without delay". As ARD and ZDF had broadcast to nearly all of East Germany since the late s and had become accepted by the East German authorities, the news was broadcast there as well simultaneously.
The GDR has announced that, starting immediately, its borders are open to everyone. The gates in the Wall stand open wide. After hearing the broadcast, East Germans began gathering at the Wall, at the six checkpoints between East and West Berlin, demanding that border guards immediately open the gates. At first, they were ordered to find the "more aggressive" people gathered at the gates and stamp their passports with a special stamp that barred them from returning to East Germany—in effect, revoking their citizenship.
However, this still left thousands of people demanding to be let through "as Schabowski said we can". Soon afterward, a crowd of West Berliners jumped on top of the Wall, and were soon joined by East German youngsters. Another border crossing to the south may have been opened earlier. Thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, The Guardian collected short stories from 9 November by five German writers who reflect on the day.
In this, Kathrin Schmidt remembers comically: 'I downed almost an entire bottle of schnapps'. Remains of the Wall adjacent to the Topography of Terror , August A memorial of over a thousand crosses and a segment of the Wall for those who died trying to cross. The memorial stood for ten months in and before it was removed. Czech hedgehog antitank obstacles and the Wall. An exhibition dedicated to the 25th anniversary to the Berlin Wall destruction was located at Potsdamer Platz Arkaden.
Line indicating where the Wall once stood, just off Potsdamer Platz , in Little is left of the Wall at its original site, which was destroyed almost in its entirety. Other isolated fragments, lampposts, other elements, and a few watchtowers also remain in various parts of the city. Fragments of the Wall were taken and some were sold around the world. Appearing both with and without certificates of authenticity , these fragments are now a staple on the online auction service eBay as well as German souvenir shops.
Today, the eastern side is covered in graffiti that did not exist while the Wall was guarded by the armed soldiers of East Germany. Previously, graffiti appeared only on the western side. Along some tourist areas of the city centre, the city government has marked the location of the former Wall by a row of cobblestones in the street. In most places only the "first" wall is marked, except near Potsdamer Platz where the stretch of both walls is marked, giving visitors an impression of the dimension of the barrier system.
After the fall of Berlin Wall, there were initiatives that they want to preserve the death strip walkways and redevelop it into a hiking and cycling area, known as Berliner Mauerweg.
It is part of the initiative by Berlin Senate since For many years after reunification, people in Germany talked about cultural differences between East and West Germans colloquially Ossis and Wessis , sometimes described as Mauer im Kopf The wall in the head.
A September poll found that 25 percent of West Germans and 12 percent of East Germans wished that East and West should be separated again by a "Wall". Although differences are still perceived between East and West, Germans make similar distinctions between North and South. Ten percent of people surveyed thought Berlin residents built it themselves.
Six percent said Western powers built it and four percent thought it was a "bilateral initiative" of the Soviet Union and the West.
Fifty-eight percent said they did not know who built it, with just 24 percent correctly naming the Soviet Union and its then-communist ally East Germany. Not all segments of the Wall were ground up as the Wall was being torn down. Many segments have been given to various institutions in the world. They can be found, for instance, in presidential and historical museums, lobbies of hotels and corporations, at universities and government buildings, and in public spaces in different countries of the world.
Speeches extolled freedom and a minute of silence at noon honored those who died trying to flee to the West. No wall can permanently withstand the desire for freedom", proclaimed President Wulff.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the video game, see The Berlin Wall video game. View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the Wall in The Wall's "death strip", on the east side of the Wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal filled in Map of the location of the Berlin Wall, showing checkpoints. Soviet Socialist Republics. Allied states. Related organizations. Dissent and opposition. Cold War events. Further information: Eastern Bloc and Berlin Blockade.
Play media. Main articles: Eastern Bloc emigration and defection and Eastern Bloc. Further information: Inner German border and Eastern Bloc emigration and defection. Main article: Berlin Crisis of See also: Berlin border crossings. Further information: List of deaths at the Berlin Wall. Main articles: Ich bin ein Berliner and Tear down this wall! Ich bin ein Berliner I am a Berliner speech.
Kennedy , 26 June Duration Ich bin ein Berliner "I am a Berliner" speech audio. Main article: Fall of the Berlin Wall. A sign reading "Until we see each other again in the capital of the GDR". Main article: List of Berlin Wall segments. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 1 November Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 20 February The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 9 November August in German ".
Retrieved 6 August Chronik der Mauer. Retrieved 26 January The Independent. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire. Oxford UK: Osprey Publishing. Revolution The Fall of the Soviet Empire. New York: Pantheon Books. Berlin Penguin Group. Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Berlin number 21 of all global cities.
Berlin is number 8 at the Global Power City Index. According to the study by Forschungsinstitut Prognos, Berlin was ranked number 92 of all regions in Germany. Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility. In , around 7, mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service. Since , a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved. Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries.
Regional rail lines of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea. The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe. Similarly to other German cities, there is an increasing quantity of intercity bus services.
The city has more than 10 stations  that run buses to destinations throughout Germany and Europe, being Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin the biggest station. Berlin has two commercial international airports. Both airports together handled In , 67 airlines served destinations in 50 countries from Berlin. The new Berlin Brandenburg Airport BER began construction in , with the intention of replacing the existing airports as the single commercial airport of Berlin.
Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane system. Both offer electric power and natural gas supply. Some of the city's electric energy is imported from nearby power plants in southern Brandenburg. As of [update] the five largest power plants measured by capacity are the Heizkraftwerk Reuter West, the Heizkraftwerk Lichterfelde, the Heizkraftwerk Mitte, the Heizkraftwerk Wilmersdorf, and the Heizkraftwerk Charlottenburg.
All of these power stations generate electricity and useful heat at the same time to facilitate buffering during load peaks. In the power grid connections in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region were renewed. The Berlin kV electric line is the backbone of the city's energy grid. Berlin has a long history of discoveries in medicine and innovations in medical technology. Rudolf Virchow was the founder of cellular pathology, while Robert Koch developed vaccines for anthrax, cholera, and tuberculosis.
The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer. The World Health Summit and several international health related conventions are held annually in Berlin. This system transmits compressed digital audio , digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream. Berlin has installed several hundred free public Wireless LAN sites across the capital since The wireless networks are concentrated mostly in central districts; hotspots indoor and outdoor access points are installed.
The Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute develops mobile and stationary broadband communication networks and multimedia systems. Focal points are photonic components and systems , fiber optic sensor systems, and image signal processing and transmission. Future applications for broadband networks are developed as well.
As of [update] , Berlin had schools, teaching , children in 13, classes and 56, trainees in businesses and elsewhere. After completing primary school, students continue to the Sekundarschule a comprehensive school or Gymnasium college preparatory school. Berlin has a special bilingual school program in the Europaschule , in which children are taught the curriculum in German and a foreign language, starting in primary school and continuing in high school.
Kennedy School , a bilingual German—American public school in Zehlendorf , is particularly popular with children of diplomats and the English-speaking expatriate community. The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most prolific centres of higher education and research in Germany and Europe. Historically, 40 Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Berlin-based universities.
The city has four public research universities and more than 30 private, professional, and technical colleges Hochschulen , offering a wide range of disciplines. The three largest universities combined have approximately , enrolled students. The city has a high density of internationally renowned research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society , the Leibniz Association , the Helmholtz Association , and the Max Planck Society , which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities.
One of Europe's successful research, business and technology clusters is based at WISTA in Berlin-Adlershof , with more than 1, affiliated firms, university departments and scientific institutions. In addition to the university-affiliated libraries, the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin is a major research library. There are also 86 public libraries in the city. Berlin is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Young people, international artists and entrepreneurs continued to settle in the city and made Berlin a popular entertainment center in the world.
The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group who decided to move their headquarters to the banks of the River Spree. As of [update] Berlin is home to museums and more than art galleries.
Subsequently, the Altes Museum was built in the Lustgarten. Apart from the Museum Island, there are many additional museums in the city. The Hamburger Bahnhof , in Moabit , exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. The expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history spanning more than a millennium.
The Bauhaus Archive is a museum of 20th century design from the famous Bauhaus school. The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two millennia of German-Jewish history. It has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world a Giraffatitan skeleton. A well-preserved specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex and the early bird Archaeopteryx are at display as well. The site of Checkpoint Charlie , one of the most renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved.
A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East.
The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the world's largest erotic museum. The cityscape of Berlin displays large quantities of urban street art. Berlin today is consistently rated as an important world city for street art culture. Berlin's nightlife has been celebrated as one of the most diverse and vibrant of its kind.
Throughout the s, people in their 20s from all over the world, particularly those in Western and Central Europe , made Berlin's club scene a premier nightlife venue. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in , many historic buildings in Mitte, the former city centre of East Berlin, were illegally occupied and re-built by young squatters and became a fertile ground for underground and counterculture gatherings.
The central boroughs are home to many nightclubs, including the Watergate, Tresor and Berghain. The KitKatClub and several other locations are known for their sexually uninhibited parties. Clubs are not required to close at a fixed time during the weekends, and many parties last well into the morning, or even all weekend.
The Weekend Club near Alexanderplatz features a roof terrace that allows partying at night. Several venues have become a popular stage for the Neo-Burlesque scene.
Berlin has a long history of gay culture, and is an important birthplace of the LGBT rights movement. Same-sex bars and dance halls operated freely as early as the s, and the first gay magazine, Der Eigene , started in By the s, gays and lesbians had an unprecedented visibility. The annual Berlin International Film Festival Berlinale with around , admissions is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world.
Several technology and media art festivals and conferences are held in the city, including Transmediale and Chaos Communication Congress.
The annual Berlin Festival focuses on indie rock, electronic music and synthpop and is part of the International Berlin Music Week. The focal point is the Brandenburg Gate, where midnight fireworks are centred, but various private fireworks displays take place throughout the entire city.
Partygoers in Germany often toast the New Year with a glass of sparkling wine. Berlin is home to 44 theaters and stages. The Berliner Ensemble , famous for performing the works of Bertolt Brecht , was established in With a seating capacity of 1, and a stage floor of 2, square metres 30, square feet , the Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin Mitte is the largest show palace in Europe.
Its musical director is Daniel Barenboim. The Komische Oper has traditionally specialized in operettas and is also at Unter den Linden. The Deutsche Oper opened in in Charlottenburg. The city's main venue for musical theater performances are the Theater am Potsdamer Platz and Theater des Westens built in Contemporary dance can be seen at the Radialsystem V. The Tempodrom is host to concerts and circus inspired entertainment.
It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience. The Admiralspalast in Mitte has a vibrant program of variety and music events. There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin. The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent orchestras in the world;  it is housed in the Berliner Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named for the orchestra's longest-serving conductor, Herbert von Karajan.
Ivan Fischer is its principal conductor. The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences. The cuisine and culinary offerings of Berlin vary greatly.
Twelve restaurants in Berlin have been included in the Michelin Guide of , which ranks the city at the top for the number of restaurants having this distinction in Germany. Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes. Typical Berliner fare include popular street food like the Currywurst which gained popularity with post-war construction workers rebuilding the city , Buletten and the Berliner doughnut, known in Berlin as Pfannkuchen.
Berlin is also home to a diverse gastronomy scene reflecting the immigrant history of the city. Turkish and Arab immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the city, such as the lahmajoun and falafel , which have become common fast food staples. The modern fast food version of the doner kebab sandwich which evolved in Berlin in the s, has since become a favorite dish in Germany and elsewhere in the world.
Zoologischer Garten Berlin , the older of two zoos in the city, was founded in It is the most visited zoo in Europe and presents the most diverse range of species in the world.
With an area of 43 hectares acres and around 22, different plant species, it is one of the largest and most diverse collections of botanical life in the world.
The Volkspark in Friedrichshain , which opened in , is the oldest park in the city, with monuments, a summer outdoor cinema and several sports areas. Potsdam is on the southwestern periphery of Berlin.
The city was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser , until The area around Potsdam in particular Sanssouci is known for a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks. Berlin has established a high-profile as a host city of major international sporting events. In around , Berliners were registered in one of the more than 2, sport and fitness clubs. Forty-seven elite athletes participated in the Summer Olympics. Berliners would achieve seven gold, twelve silver and three bronze medals.
Several professional clubs representing the most important spectator team sports in Germany have their base in Berlin. Other professional team sport clubs include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the capital of Germany. For other uses, see Berlin disambiguation. Capital and largest city of Germany.
Capital city and state in Germany. Capital city and state. From top: view over the historic city center Nicholas' Quarter with St. Coat of arms. Main article: History of Berlin. Further information: Timeline of Berlin. Main article: Geography of Berlin. Mitte , the historical center: Unter den Linden boulevard in the foreground, high-rise buildings of Potsdamer Platz up to the right.
Main article: Architecture in Berlin. Further information: List of sights in Berlin and List of tallest buildings in Berlin.
East Side Gallery. Main article: Demographics of Berlin. Main articles: German language and Berlinerisch dialect. Main article: Religion in Berlin. Clockwise from top left: 1. Berlin Cathedral the main evangelical church, 2. New Synagogue, Berlin 3. Roman catholic St.
Hedwig's Cathedral. Main articles: Politics of Berlin and Berlin Police. Main article: Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Main article: Economy of Berlin. Main article: List of sights in Berlin. Berlin Fashion Week. IFA is the world's leading trade show for consumer electronics.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of films set in Berlin. Main article: Media in Berlin. Main article: Transport in Berlin. Main article: Cycling in Berlin. Main article: Radio and telecommunication in Berlin. Main article: Education in Berlin. Main article: Universities and research institutions in Berlin.
Main article: Culture in Berlin. Altes Museum in Lustgarten. For a more comprehensive list, see List of museums and galleries in Berlin. Main article: Music in Berlin. See also: German cuisine.
Currywurst Museum. Plate of Currywurst. Invented in Berlin, currywurst is an icon of German popular culture and cuisine. Main article: Sport in Berlin. Germany portal European Union portal. Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 23 February Retrieved 24 November Die Zeit Magazin in German. Leipziger Volkszeitung in German. Gren Berlin. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 9 October August Retrieved 21 November Modern History Sourcebook.
Retrieved 18 August German Embassy in Washington. Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 11 April The New York Times. GaWC Research Bulletin Retrieved 29 October Archived from the original on 16 August Bloomberg L. Retrieved 11 September Deutsche Welle.
City mayors. Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 28 August Geographische Namen in Deutschland. Bibliographisches Institut. Retrieved 24 August NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 January Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 11 June Geschichte Berlins. Verlag CH Beck, Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 10 November Archived from the original on 7 August November Retrieved 30 May Der Tagesspiegel in German. Archived from the original on 18 August Fraser's Magazine.
Retrieved 11 February Gunther 1 January Asylum: A Moral Dilemma. Greenwood Publishing Group. Edition Luisenstadt Berlin, Nr. World History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society.
Cengage Learning. Arthur Schopenhauer. Reaktion Books. Staff; Harvard Student Agencies, Inc. Avalon Travel. Lonel Berlin. Berlin: A Short History.
Paul 15 June Berghahn Books. The Rough Guide to Berlin. Rough Guides. Holocuast Encyclopedia. Wolfgang 27 April Western Allies Berlin. Retrieved 8 April Diplomatic Mission to Germany. New York City. Retrieved 20 November Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in German. With a beautiful castle in the background, flowers surrounding you and a serenade lake by your side, spending a nice sunny afternoon here will have you swooning.
Schloss Charlottenburg Berlin, Berlin, Germany. It is a lovely romantic escape that can be reached by public transport. Tiefwerderweg, Berlin, Germany. Slightly off the beaten track, this lovely Berlin park is adorned with marble columns, picturesque scenery and a nice, secluded vibe. Located in Viktoriapark, in Kreuzberg , this man-made wonder is the perfect little oasis to escape to for a date.
The results of the entry drawing will be announced by email from November 27 to December 3. The amount of donations will be donated in full to a charity project for Berlin children. For a guaranteed race entry register via a tour operator or date partner. You get more information in the sections below.
Use the registration buttons for register as a runner, wheelchair competitor, handbiker or skater. You'll find the registration for datd. Wheelchair competitors, handbikers. More detailed information, such as route or extras, you get date our overview. Special information for wheelchair competitors and handbikers, such as helmet duty, types of diablement berlin technical service, we have prepared here.
Dates Registration opens eate November 4, For skaters, the minimum age of 17 years date by the World Federation applies. Official tour operators offer race spots beelin part of ddate travel package eg. That is also valid for groups that want to run together. More detailed information, such as route, start documents or start times, you get in our overview. Dates Guaranteed race entries, depending berlin availability, can be booked through different berlin tour operators until summer You can also select these option after the entry drawing has been completed and you are still in need of a race number.
Our official charity partner Realbuzz UK as well as additional charitiesoffer guaranteed race spot in conjunction with raising money for a good cause. Berlin race entries, d on availability, can be booked through our official charity partner Realbuzz UK as well as additional charities until summer Dates It is not necessary to register in the entry drawing.
You will receive a special information in January explaining the registration process. If you have not received an email by the end of Januaryplease contact us at jubilee scc-events. We will send out a confirmation email after the application has been submitted. Multiple entries will not be considered. Dates Registration deadline: October 1, - October 31, It date not matter when you register within that timeframe, so feel free to take your date.
The results of the drawing will be announced by email from November berlin on. You will be required to submit all of your relevant data during the registration phase, date your bank or credit card informations with permission to charge your account ONLY upon being selected in the drawing to participate. Your personal registration is binding. If your name is drawn, the participant fee will be booked from your date.
The bank or credit card informations will be deleted for everyone who is not selected in the drawing. Alternative ways to a race entry Would you like to run together with someone or with a group of two or date runners? Then select the new path to the entry drawing for teams only for 2 to 3 runners. Would you like to secure a definite starting spot for yourself or a running group?
Then select the path berlin the guaranteed starting spots and register via a tour operator or charity partner. You can also select one of these options after the entry drawing has been completed and you are still in need of a race number.
It is not permitted to enter both drawings. If you date attempt to register for both drawings, your data will be removed from the individual drawing and dzte the registered teammates will be entered into the drawing. Date one team member is not able to participate, the other team members are, of course, allowed berlin start.
This is not a relay race. There is no team classification. Registration fee and Banking Belrin registration fee is Euros per runner. We require the pertinent data for all members when you register for the team drawing. This includes bank information with permission to direct debit or charge the credit card of one of the team members, which will only be implemented should the team be selected for participation.
By registering, all team members are thus entering a personal binding agreement. The registration fees will be booked once a team has been successfully selected. It is not possible to change or cancel your registration dat entry into the drawing!
Alternative ways to berlin race entry Would you like to secure a definite starting spot for yourself or a running group? The results of the verification dste be announced by email from November 27 on. As part of the registration process, you can upload your certificates, lists of results and proof of age as documents or provide URL links to the information. Male Runners : Date 18 to 44 age group to : under hours berlin Male Runners Age 45 to 59 age group to : under hours — Male Runners Age 60 and up age group und older : under hours Female Runners : Age 18 to 44 age group to : under hours — Female Runners Age 45 to 59 age group to : under hours — Female Runners Age 60 and up age group und older : under hours Should your submitted times not satisfy the criteria, you will be automatically be entered in the race entry drawing.
If berlin qualification times are verified, the participant fee will be booked from your account. Newsletter Sign up for our berlin Register now.
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The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin .. The date of 13 August became commonly referred to as Barbed Wire Sunday in Germany. The barrier was built inside East Berlin or East. Here you can find the actual time and date in Berlin | Germany - Berlin.
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