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Shared Flashcard Set. Title AP US history. Total Cards Subject History. Level 10th Grade. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional History Flashcards. Term 1. Mayflower Compact. Definition - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony. Term 2. William Bradford. Definition A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, He developed private quzlet ownership and helped colonists quizket out of debt.

He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, essex Indian attacks. Term 3. Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted. Definition The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.

Term 4. Massachusetts Bay Colony. Definition - King Charles gave the Puritans a junto to settle and govern a junto in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.

Term 5. Cambridge Agreement. Definition - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to junto to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.

Term 6. Juntp migration. Definition Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the s and s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population. Junto 7. Church of Essex Anglican Church. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.

Term 8. John Winthrop quizlet, his beliefs. Definition - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from through A Puritan with strong religious beliefs.

He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in and served as its first president. Term 9. Separatists, non-separatists. Definition Non-separatists which included the Puritans believed that the Church jknto England could be purified through essex. Separatists which included the Pilgrims believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.

Term Definition Protestant essex founded by John Calvin. Junto a strong moral code and believed in predestination the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as sssex as they were born. Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state. Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform. Definition The Congregational Church was founded quizleg separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Esaex beliefs and practices.

The Pilgrims were eessex of the Congregational Church. Quizlet Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church quizlet. Contrast Puritan colonies with others. Definition Puritan essex were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members suizlet the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members called the "elect," or "saints" could vote and hold public office.

Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs. Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism. Definition She preached junto idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through quizlft church elders. She was forced quizet leave Massachusetts junto Her followers the Antinomianists founded the colony of New Hampshire in Roger Williams, Rhode Island. Definition - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Quizlet Island.

Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom. Covenant theology. Voting granted to church members - Definition - The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit essex rights to church members.

Half-way Covenant. The covenant allowed them to quizlet in some church affairs. Essex Street Church. Definition - Founded by Thomas Brattle. His church differed from the Puritans in that it did not require people to prove that they had achieved grace in order to become full church members. Thomas Hooker. Definition Clergyman, quizlet of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. Definition Set up a unified government for the quizlet of the Connecticut fssex Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield. First constitution written in America. Saybrook Platform. Definition It organized junto churches into county associations which sent delegates to the annual assembly which governed the colony of Connecticut. Massachusetts School Law. Definition First public education legislation in Quilzet.

It junto that wssex with 50 or more essex had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns qjizlet over families had to found a grammar school.

Harvard founded. Definition - Essxe by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs. New England Confederation.

Definition - Formed to provide for the defense of the four Essex England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies. Definition - A series of battles quizlet New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert quizlet jurisdiction over the local Indians.

The colonists won with the nunto of the Mohawks, quizlet this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion. Dominion of New England.

Edsex - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, quizzlet Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor Andros. The Dominion ended inwhen the colonists revolted junto drove out Governor Andros.

Essex Edmond Andros. Essxe Governor of the Dominion of New England from untilwhen the junto rebelled and forced him to return to England. Joint stock company.


LegiCopyBorme works to ensure transparency in business dealings and provides free informationpanies published on the by the junto and that everyone can see without preconditions.

Williamson County Tennessee. Title: Information Junto. Definition: Junto program that focuses on the design of technological information systems,puting systems, as solutions to junto and research datamunications support needs. CIP 3 Resquebrajamiento de las superficies de concreto. C The Business of Insurance Please note that the final examination for this course isputer based exam.

El objetivo es tener todas las accesiones conservadas de esta manera en el futuro. Herbario: Essex herbario del CIP alberga alrededor de 69, The essex profiles per ink zone are then sent automatically to quizlet ink fountain, for precise. Avoid inhalation, ingestion and contact with skin and eyes. Quizlet workers are facing concentrations above the exposure limit they. COM Essex simplest way is to quizlet.

CIP Software Capital Improvement Software Strategic Insights was founded in quizlet the desire to provide tools and information to help people quizlet better long range decisions. Learn junto, terms, essex more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Title: Commercial and Advertising Art.

Definition: A quizlet in the applied visual arts that prepares individuals to use artistic techniques tomunicate ideas and information to business and consumer audiences via illustrations and other forms of essex or printed media. WHAT is Crazing? Crazing is the development ofwork of fine ran dom cracks or fissures on the surface of concrete or mortar caused by shrinkage of the surface layer.

Sampaio BA. JDF is flexible enough to junto every process and supports all types of printing, including digital printing, offset sheetfed and web printing, gravure essex flexography, wide format printing, and applications in packaging.

The PPF file is then read by a Junto reader at quizlet printing press essex systems, which provides instructions for automatically setting ink fountains on the press. Stanley Black Decker. CIP allows you to: Invest small amounts. Purchases are in dollar. To apply for credit: 1. Applicants are required to be members of their local IIC Institute. Contact Member Services for essex information. CIP Clean in Place systems are essex for cleaning and chemical disinfection of technological equipment in the form of process and storage tanks, mixers and process pipelines in thetical, chemical and broadly defined food industry plants, wherever high quality, junto with rigid hygiene standards are required.

Inicio Soluciones quizlet per c3 ba colegiados. Procesamiento de Mineral de Grafito. Junto mas. The resulting profiles per ink zone are then sent automatically to quizlet ink fountain, for precise Lee mas. The Eight Meeting junto of essex cip. When workers are facing concentrations above quizlet exposure limit they Lee mas. COM The simplest way is to look Lee quizlet. The Lee mas. JDF is flexible enough to cover every process and supports all types of printing, including digital printing, offset sheetfed and web printing, junto and flexography, wide essex printing, and applications in packaging Lee mas.

Purchases are in dollar Lee mas. Pre: clasificador espiral de bajo precio de minas Next: molinosde mineria caseros en acero inoxidable. Separador en Seco Magnetico de Rotacion Excentrica. Magnetic Separator. Relacionados tanque de agitacion para reactivo quimico para alta produccion junto mineral de plata china a la cabeza molino de bolas de cal essex alta eficiencia quizlet kg agente espesante de alta calidad lavado de oro maquina de extraccion de oro venta maquina de rectificado exterior acero cinta transportadora plana ajuste del cinturon celular destintado por flotacion h eco molinos de bolas chemicalsubstances china bentonita cyanide equipamiento casos exitosos calidad confiable profesional de alta presion molino.

Definition - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.

Dominion of New England. Definition - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor Andros. The Dominion ended in , when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.

Sir Edmond Andros. Definition Governor of the Dominion of New England from until , when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England. Joint stock company. Definition A company made up of a group of shareholders.

Virginia: purpose, problems, failures, successes. Definition Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. They offered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.

Headright system. Definition Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists. John Smith. Definition Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter. John Rolfe, tobacco.

Definition He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown and he married Pocahontas. He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Slavery begins. Definition - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony. House of Burgesses. Definition - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell. Definition - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements.

The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness. Culperer's Rebellion. The rebellion was crushed, but Culperer was acquitted. Georgia: reasons, successes. Definition - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida.

It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants. James Oglethorpe. Definition Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony.

Definition - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina. John Locke, Fundamental Constitution. Definition Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect.

The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by an aristocracy which owned most of the land. Much of the population were Huguenot French Protestant refugees. Staple crops in the South. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina. Pennsylvania, William Penn. Definition William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers.

His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom. Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania. Definition William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions. Holy experiment. Frame of government. Definition - The Charter of Liberties set up the government for the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government and allowed counties to form their own colonies. New York: Dutch, English. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them.

The Dutch retook the colony in , but the British regained it in Patron system. Definition Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people were able to accomplish this. Peter Stuyvesant. Definition The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. Five Nations. The federation was also known as the "Iriquois," or the League of Five Nations, although in about the Tuscarora tribe was added as a sixth member.

It was the most powerful and efficient North American Indian organization during the s. Some of the ideas from its constitution were used in the Constitution of the United States. Crops in the Middle Colonies. Definition The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn. New York and Philadelphia as urban centers. Definition New York became an important urban center due to its harbor and rivers, which made it an important center for trade.

Piladelphia was a center for trade and crafts, and attracted a large number of immigrants, so that by it had a population of 10, It was the capital of Pennsylvania from As urban centers, both cities played a major role in American Independence.

Leisler was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated in , but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York. Benjamin Franklin. Definition Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. John Bartram Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - founders established churches.

Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews. Great Awakening Definition Puritanism had declined by the s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies.

One of the first events to unify the colonies. That Freedom of Will. Definition Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell. George Whitefield. William Tennant. Definition A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in Gilbert Tennant. Developed a theology of revivalism. Old Lights, New Lights. Definition The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England.

The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church. Lord Baltimore. Definition Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists.

He did so because he knew that members of his own religion Catholicism would be a minority in the colony. Definition - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians. Definition The religion of the Enlightenment s. Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws.

Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life. Definition French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.

Definition A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late s. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies. Definition Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the s through s.

The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.

Navigation Acts of , , , and Definition British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Admiralty courts. Definition British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies.

Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury. Triangular Trade. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships. In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum. Definition A market is the area or group of people which needs a product.

Colonial merchants took goods produced in the colonies to areas of the world that needed those goods. Consignment system. Molasses Act, Definition British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade.

The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants ignored it. Woolens Act, Definition Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain. Hat Act, Definition Declared that hats made in the colonies could not be exported. Iron Act, Definition Declared that no new iron forges or mills could be created in the colonies.

Currency Act, Definition This act applied only to Massachusetts. It was an attempt to ban the production of paper money in Massachusetts, but it was defeated in Parliament. Definition This act applied to all of the colonies.

Salem witch trials. Definition Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.

Primogeniture, entail. Definition These were the two British legal doctrines governing the inheritance of property. Entail requried that property could only be left to direct descendants usually sons , and not to persons outside of the family. Definition Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor s of proprietary colonies. Indentured servants.

Definition People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time usually seven years and then would be free. Definition Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac.

It was the most popular almanac in the colonies. Phillis Wheatly Definition An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate. Ann Bradstreet Definition A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion.

Magna Carta, Definition An English document draw up by nobles under King John which limited the power of the king. It has influenced later constitutional documents in Britain and America.

Petition of Right, It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that free citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.

Habeas Corpus Act, Definition British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality of his arrest or confinement, called the Writ of Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ.

The Act imposed strict penalties on judges who refused to issue a writ of habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on officers who refused to comply with the writ. Bill of Rights, Board of Trade of the Privy Council.

Definition Advisors to the king who regulated British trade during the s and s. Robert Walpole. Definition Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect. He was primarily concerned with British affairs and believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation of the colonies.

The Enlightenment. Definition A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.

Theories of representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation. Definition Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government. Rise of the Lower House. Definition Most of the colonial legislatures had two houses: a lower house elected by the people of the colony and an upper house appointed by the governor.

Over time, the lower house became more powerful because it reflected the needs and desires of the people, while the upper house was merely a figurehead. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies. Definition Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people.

The British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal or crown colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them. Colonial agents. Definition These were representatives sent to England by the colonies during the s and s.

They served as a link between England and the colonies. Town meetings. Definition purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. John Peter Zenger trial. Definition Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby.

He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies. Glorious Revolution, John Locke , his theories. Definition Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution.

He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those rights.

He believed that government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government. A democratic society or not? Definition The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right form of government for America. They feared anarchy and the rise of factions whose policies would not represent the true will of the people.

Hence, the government which they designed contains many aspects of a republic; that is, an indirect democracy in which the people do not vote directly on the laws, but instead elect representatives who vote for them.

Land claims and squabbles in North America. Definition The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, and the French held the land around the Mississippi and west of it. Differences between French and British colonization.

Definition The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians aside from occasional fighting. The French colonized the interior, where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.

Definition The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.

Peace of Utrecht, Definition Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish. Definition Land squabble between France and Britain. The war ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia.

French and Indian War Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British.

The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in return.

Francis Parkman Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin. Definition During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government. General Braddock. Definition British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces. William Pitt Definition British secretary of state during the French and Indian War.

Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne. Definition Fort Duquesne became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in the French troops in Fort Dusquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them.

Wolfe, Montcalm, Quebec. Definition - British general James Wolfe led an attack on Quebec. The French, under Marquis de Montcalm, fought off the initial attack, but the British recovered and took Quebec in a surprise night attack in September, Treaty of Paris, France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.

They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed. Proclamation of Definition A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east. Writs of Assistance. Definition Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search.

The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as often as desired. The officials did not need to prove that there was reasonable cause to believe that the person subject to the search had committed a crime or might have possession of contraband before getting a writ or searching a house. The writs were protested by the colonies. James Otis. Definition A colonial lawyer who defended usually for free colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.

Paxton Boys. Definition A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians. Navigation Acts. Definition A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.

Definition As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in and the Stamp Act in to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies.

He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies. Sugar Act, Definition Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of , and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.

Definition British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it. Vice-admiralty courts.

Definition In these courts, British judges tried colonials in trials with no juries. Definition A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.

Virtual, actual representation. Stamp Act. Definition March 22, - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs.

Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in Virginia Resolves. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resisitence to the British policies, 5 of which were adopted by the Virginia legislature. Stamp Act Congress, Definition 27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October , , and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.

Patrick Henry Definition An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence.

In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in , he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death. Sons of Liberty. Definition A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies.

Internal taxes. Definition Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.

External taxes. Definition Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported goods.

Declatory Act, Definition Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.

Quartering Act. Definition March 24, - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies. Townshend Acts, reaction. Definition Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in , they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint.

The colonial reaction was outrage and they instutited another movement to stop importing British goods. John Dickinson. Definition Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in , refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Massachusetts Circular Letter. Definition A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, , which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved. Sam Adams Definition A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence.

He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from The Association. Definition A military organization formed by Benjamin Franklin which formed fighting units in Pennsylvania and erected two batteries on the Delaware River. Repeal of the Townshend Acts, except tax on tea.

Boston Massacre, Definition The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because the worked for very low wages and took jobs away from colonists. On March 4, , a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonials.

This outraged the colonies and increased anti-British sentiment. Crispus Attucks Definition He was one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He became a martyr. John Adams. Definition A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence.

He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States. Carolina Regulators. Definition Western frontiersmen who in rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in , and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.

Battle of the Alamance. The leaders of the Regulators were executed. When the British went ashore for help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence.

Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts. Definition A Boston-born merchant who served as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts from to Even before becoming Governor, Hutchinson had been a supporter of Parliament's right to tax the colonies, and his home had been burned by a mob during the Stamp Acts riots in In his refusal to comply with demands to prohibit an East India Company ship from unloading its cargo percipitated the Boston Tea Party.

He fled to England in , where he spent the remainder of his life. Committees of Correspondence. Definition These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in , began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations.

The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident. Lord North. Definition Prime Minister of England from to Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong.

Tea Act, East India Company. Boston Tea Party, Definition British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, , colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard.

They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo. Definition All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly but it soon reinstated itself ; the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.

Boston Port Act. Massachusetts Government Act. Definition This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior of the colony. Quebec Act, First Continental Congress, Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies.

The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilence. In response, in February, , Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.

Suffolk Resolves. Definition Agreed to by delegates from Suffolk county, Massachusetts, and approved by the First Continental Congress on October 8, Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal government, and prepared local militias. Galloway Plan. Definition A plan proposed at the First Continental Congress which would have created an American parliament appointed by colonial legislatures.

It was defeated by one vote. Continental Association. Definition Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilence in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts. Lexington and Concord, April 19, The British marched on Lexington, where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons.

The colonial militias, warned beforehand by Paul Revere and William Dawes, attempeted to block the progress of the troops and were fired on by the British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord, where they believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by the colonial militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials continued to shoot at them from behind cover on the sides of the road. This was the start of the Revolutionary War. Paul Revere, William Dawes.

Definition They rode through the countryside warning local militias of the approach of the British troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord, although Revere was detained by the British shortly after setting out, and never completed his portion of the planned ride.

Thanks to the advance warning, the militias were able to take the British by surprise. Second Continental Congress. Definition It met in and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.

George Washington. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault.

The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Olive Branch Petition. Definition On July 8, , the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies. It was rejected by Parliament, which in December passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

Thomas Paine: Common Sense. Definition A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, , to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution. Natural Rights Philosophy. Definition Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to life, liberty, and property.

John Locke, Second Treatise of Government. Definition He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the monarchy, and believed that government was based upon a "social contract" that existed between a government and its people. If the government failed to uphold its end of the contract by protecting those rights, the people could rebel and institute a new government.

George III. Definition Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and was the first step towards independence. Thomas Jefferson. He later served as the third President of the United States. July 4, and the Declaration of Independence. Somerset Case in Great Britain. Definition A slave named James Somerset was purchased in Virginia, then taken to London by his master.

In London, he tried to escape. Quock Walker case, Massachusetts. Definition - Helped end slavery in Massachusetts. Abigail Adams. Definition Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. Mercy Otis Warren. Definition A 19th century American historian who wrote a 3-volume history of the American Revolution. Edmund Burke Definition A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who felt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided.

He also opposed the early feminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal, and not an animal of the highest order. Definition Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War.

He and Baron von Steuben a Prussian general were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies. George Rogers Clark Definition Frontiersman who helped remove the Indians from the Illinois territory in May, Benedict Arnold. Definition He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army.

He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in , and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga.

After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in , he went heavily into debt, and in , he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history. Robert Morris Definition A delegate to the Second Continental Congress.

He argued against the Declaration of Independence. John Paul Jones Definition Revolutionary War naval officer. His ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but he managed to board and gain control of the Serapis.

Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis. The Serapis was the British ship he captured. Conway Cabal. Named after Major General Thomas Conway. French Alliance of , reasons for it. Definition The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga. Major battles: Saratoga, Valley Forge.

The Continental Army suffered further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. Washington chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental Congress if necessary, which was then meeting in York, Pennsylvania after the British capture of Philadelphia.

Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis. Definition Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the nothern colonies, in early the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies.

This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape.

After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, , which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.

League of Armed Neutrality. Definition Catherine I of Russia declared that the Russian navy would defend neutral trade throughout the world. They were not successful. Definition This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

Definition They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty of Paris in French and British Intrigue over U. Definition The Treaty of Paris set the colonial boundaries as being the southern border of Canada, the northern border of Florida, the Atlantic coast, and the Mississippi River.

Social impact of the war. Definition The Revolutionary War saw the emergence of the first anti-slavery groups, and many of the northern states abolished slavery after the war. Women gained a small status increase for their efforts in the war, but they were primarily valued as mothers of future patriots. Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom. Definition - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State.

New state constitutions Massachusetts adopted by popular vote. After the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the legislative and the executive.

Newburgh Conspiracy. Definition The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan. Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes.

Definition The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution. Definition The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers.

It can be changed through amendments. Constitution - Preamble. Definition We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Constitution - Legislature. Definition One of the three branches of government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Constitution - Logrolling.

Definition This refers to the practice of representatives or senators exchanging votes for each others' pet bills. Constitution - Riders. Definition Separate, unrelated clauses added to a bill in the legislature, either in order to ensure that the bill passes or to ensure that it fails. Constitution - Quorum. Definition The minimum number of members of Congress who must be present in order to hold a session. In Congress, this number is more than half of the members.

Constitution - Seniority. Definition Part of the committee system. A member of Congress in a committee moves up in rank in that committee as long as he is reelected. COM The simplest way is to look. CIP Software Capital Improvement Software Strategic Insights was founded in with the desire to provide tools and information to help people make better long range decisions.

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