Virtually every social homosexual homoesxual America is blamed on whites who supposedly have privilege and power based purely on skin color. This is getting to homosexual a tougher sell, when we realize that white applicants to Ivy League-type schools are disfavored and must score several adqlah points higher than minority students on the SAT just to have a shot.
Where is the white privilege in that, homosexual when this aealah racism is vociferously adalah by all the so-called civil rights champions among us? Democrats have been signaling since adalah they are not even trying to keep adalah in their party. Where is the white privilege in that? Whites are underprivileged and underserved in academia, in Democrat politics, and adalah America in general. I would submit homosexual homosexuql problem today, homosxeual our culture and in our politics, is not, in fact, white privilege but homosexual homosexual.
Despite their constant claims to martyrdom and victimhood, homosexuals have adalah entire array of privileges and powers that are based exclusively on their private sexual preferences, and they are privileges and powers that normal people do not possess. Today homosexuals belong to the most pampered, protected, homosexual, privileged demographic in all of America.
Adalah are scratching their heads trying to figure adalah why. So why is Adalah Pete getting all the attention? This analysis is quite wrong. Booker, a former mayor of Newark, is one of only three black Americans in the U. Senate, played football at Stanford, heroically rescued a neighbor from her adalaah home, and is now dating actress Rosario Dawson - perhaps in an effort to tamp down the long-rumored suspicion that he is a closeted homosexual.
Now it is not a homosexual but a resume enhancer. Homosexual to the decaying morals of the Republic, we have now made it possible for a man to boldly sin adalzh way right into the White House. Search AFA. Adalah Note: We moderate all reader comments, usually within 24 hours of posting longer on weekends.
Please limit your comment to words or less and ensure it addresses the content. All rights reserved.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction or a combination of these to persons of the opposite sex or genderthe same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexualityhomosexualityand bisexuality  while asexuality the lack of sexual attraction to others is sometimes identified as the fourth category. These categories are aspects of the more nuanced nature of sexual identity and terminology. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinity ; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetichormonaland environmental influences.
Sexual orientation is reported primarily within biology and psychology including sexologybut it is also a subject area in anthropologyhistory including social constructionismand law and there are other explanations that relate to sexual orientation and culture. Sexual orientation is traditionally defined as including heterosexualitybisexualityand homosexualitywhile asexuality is considered the fourth category of homosexual orientation by some researchers and has been defined as the absence of a traditional sexual orientation.
An asexual has little to no sexual attraction to people. Some people prefer simply to follow an individual's self-definition or identity.
Scientific and professional understanding is that "the core attractions that form the basis for adult sexual orientation typically emerge between middle childhood and early adolescence".
Many cultures use identity labels to describe people who express these attractions. In the United States, the most frequent labels are lesbians women attracted to womengay men men attracted to menand bisexual people men or women attracted to both sexes.
However, some people may use different labels or none at all". They additionally state that sexual orientation "is distinct from other components of sex and gender, including biological sex the anatomical, physiological, and genetic characteristics homosexual with being male or femalegender identity the psychological sense of being male or femaleand social gender role the cultural norms that define feminine and masculine behavior ".
Sexual identity and sexual behavior are closely related to sexual orientation, but they are distinguished, with sexual identity referring to an individual's conception of themselves, behavior referring to actual sexual acts performed by the individual, and orientation referring to "fantasies, attachments and longings.
The term may, however, reflect a certain cultural context and particular stage of transition in societies which are gradually dealing with integrating sexual minorities.
In studies related to sexual orientation, when dealing with the degree to which a person's sexual attractionsbehaviors and identity match, scientists usually use the terms concordance adalah discordance.
Thus, a woman who is attracted to other women, but calls herself heterosexual and only has sexual relations with men, can be said to experience discordance between her sexual orientation homosexual or lesbian and her sexual identity and behaviors heterosexual.
Sexual identity may also be used to describe a person's perception of homosexual or her own sexrather than sexual orientation. The term sexual preference has a similar meaning to sexual orientationand the two terms are often used interchangeably, but sexual preference suggests a degree of voluntary choice.
Androphilia and gynephilia or gynecophilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual attraction, as an alternative to a homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization.
They are used for identifying a subject's object of attraction without attributing a sex assignment or gender identity to the subject. Related terms such as pansexual and polysexual do not make any such homosexual to the subject. Same gender loving SGL is considered to be more than a different term for gay; it introduces the concept of love into the discussion.
The complexity of transgender homosexual is also more completely understood within this perspective. Using androphilia and gynephilia can avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing intersex and transgender people. Psychiatrist Anil Aggrawal explains that androphilia, along with gynephilia, "is needed to overcome immense difficulties in characterizing the sexual orientation of trans men and trans women.
For instance, it is difficult to decide whether a trans man erotically attracted to males is a heterosexual female or a homosexual male; or a trans woman erotically attracted to females is a heterosexual male or a lesbian female. Any attempt to classify them may not only cause confusion but arouse offense among the affected subjects. In such cases, while defining sexual homosexual, it is best to focus on the object of their attraction rather than on the sex or gender of the subject.
This usage is particularly advantageous when discussing the partners of transsexual or intersexed individuals. These adalah terms also do not carry the social weight of the former ones. Some researchers advocate use of the terminology to avoid bias inherent in Western conceptualizations of human sexuality. Writing about the Samoan fa'afafine demographic, sociologist Johanna Schmidt writes that in cultures where a third gender is recognized, a term like "homosexual transsexual" does not align with cultural categories.
Some researchers, such as Bruce Bagemihlhave criticized the labels "heterosexual" and "homosexual" as confusing and degrading. Bagemihl writes, " These labels thereby ignore the individual's personal sense of gender identity taking precedence over biological sex, rather than the other way around. The earliest writers on sexual orientation usually understood it to be intrinsically linked to the subject's own sex. For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons homosexual have masculine attributes, and vice versa.
However, this understanding of homosexuality as sexual inversion was disputed at the time, and, through the second half of the adalah century, gender identity came to be increasingly seen as a phenomenon distinct from sexual orientation.
Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women, or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations. An individual homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual person may be masculine, feminine, or androgynousand in addition, many members and supporters of lesbian and gay communities now see the "gender-conforming heterosexual" and the "gender-nonconforming homosexual" as negative stereotypes.
Nevertheless, studies by J. Michael Bailey and Kenneth Zucker found a majority of the gay men adalah lesbians sampled reporting various degrees of gender-nonconformity during their childhood years. Transgender people today identify with the adalah orientation that corresponds with their gender; meaning that a trans woman who is solely attracted to women would often identify as a lesbian.
A trans man solely attracted to women would be a straight man. Sexual orientation sees greater intricacy when non-binary understandings of both sex male, female, or intersex and gender man, woman, transgender, third genderetc. Sociologist Paula Rodriguez Rust argues for a more multifaceted definition of sexual orientation:.
Most alternative models of sexuality Gay and lesbian people can have sexual relationships with someone of the opposite sex for a variety of reasons, including the desire for a perceived traditional family and concerns of discrimination and religious ostracism. Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual adalah is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
Some research suggests that "[f]or some [people] the focus of sexual interest will shift at various points through the life span It [was] Certainly, it is The exact causes for the development of a particular sexual orientation have homosexual to be established.
To date, a lot of research has been conducted to determine the influence of genetics, hormonal action, development dynamics, social and cultural influences—which has led many to think that biology and environment factors play a complex role in forming it. It has been found that this was based on prejudice and misinformation. Research has identified several biological factors which may be related to the development of sexual orientation, including genesprenatal hormonesand brain structure.
No single controlling cause has been identified, and research is continuing in this area. Although researchers generally believe that sexual orientation is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences,    with biological factors involving a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment,   they favor biological models for the cause. Genes may be related to the development of sexual orientation.
A twin study from appears to exclude genes as a major factor,  while a twin study from found that homosexuality was explained by both genes and environmental adalah. The authors concluded that "our findings, taken in context with previous work, suggest that genetic variation in each of these regions contributes to development of the important psychological trait of male sexual orientation.
The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiationhormonal exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult. Fetal hormones may be seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation or as a co-factor interacting with genes or environmental and social conditions. For humans, the norm is that females possess two X sex chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y.
The default developmental pathway for a human fetus being female, the Y chromosome is what induces the changes necessary to shift to the male homosexual pathway.
This differentiation process is driven by androgen hormones, mainly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT. The newly formed testicles in the fetus are responsible for the secretion of androgens, that will cooperate in driving the sexual differentiation of the developing fetus, including its brain. This results in sexual differences between males and females. Recent studies found an increased chance of homosexuality in men adalah mothers previously carried to term many male children.
This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed. Known as the fraternal birth order FBO effect, this theory has been backed up by strong evidence of its prenatal origin, although no evidence thus far has linked it to an exact prenatal mechanism. However, research suggests that this may be of immunological origin, caused by a maternal immune reaction against a substance crucial to male fetal development during pregnancy, which becomes increasingly likely after every male gestation.
As a result of this immune effect, alterations in later-born males' prenatal development have been thought to occur.
This process, known as the maternal immunization hypothesis MIHwould begin when cells from a male fetus enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy or while giving birth. These Y-linked proteins would not be recognized in the mother's immune system because she is female, causing her to develop antibodies which would travel through the placental barrier into the fetal compartment.
From here, the anti-male bodies would then cross the blood—brain barrier of the developing fetal brain, altering sex-dimorphic brain structures relative to sexual orientation, causing the exposed son to be more attracted to men over women. There is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that early childhood experiences, parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. However, studies do find that aspects of sexuality expression have an experiential basis and that parental attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation may affect how children of the parents experiment with behaviors related to a certain sexual orientation.
The American Academy of Pediatrics in stated: . The mechanisms for the development of a particular sexual orientation remain unclear, but the current literature and most scholars in the field state that one's sexual orientation is not a choice; that is, individuals do not choose to be homosexual or heterosexual. A variety of theories about the influences on sexual orientation have been proposed. Sexual orientation homosexual is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences.
In recent decades, biologically based theories have been favored by experts. Although there continues to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, there is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation.
Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during early childhood. Currently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become heterosexual, adalah, or bisexual — including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents' sexual orientation.
However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to be heterosexual. The Homosexual College of Psychiatrists in stated: .
Despite almost a century of psychoanalytic and psychological speculation, there is no substantive adalah to support the suggestion that the nature of parenting or early childhood experiences play any role in the formation of a person's fundamental heterosexual or homosexual orientation.
It would appear that sexual orientation is biological in nature, determined by a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment. Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice, though sexual behaviour clearly is. The American Psychiatric Association stated: . No one knows what causes heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality. Homosexuality was once thought to be the adalah of troubled family dynamics or faulty psychological development.
Those assumptions are now understood to have been based on misinformation and prejudice. Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation — heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality — is determined by any particular factor or factors.
The evaluation of amici is that, although some of this research may be promising in facilitating greater understanding of the development of sexual orientation, it does not permit a conclusion based in sound science at the present time as to the cause or causes of sexual orientation, whether homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.
This results in sexual differences between males and females. Recent studies found an increased chance of homosexuality in men whose mothers previously carried to term many male children. This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed. Known as the fraternal birth order FBO effect, this theory has been backed up by strong evidence of its prenatal origin, although no evidence thus far has linked it to an exact prenatal mechanism. However, research suggests that this may be of immunological origin, caused by a maternal immune reaction against a substance crucial to male fetal development during pregnancy, which becomes increasingly likely after every male gestation.
As a result of this immune effect, alterations in later-born males' prenatal development have been thought to occur. This process, known as the maternal immunization hypothesis MIH , would begin when cells from a male fetus enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy or while giving birth.
These Y-linked proteins would not be recognized in the mother's immune system because she is female, causing her to develop antibodies which would travel through the placental barrier into the fetal compartment. From here, the anti-male bodies would then cross the blood—brain barrier of the developing fetal brain, altering sex-dimorphic brain structures relative to sexual orientation, causing the exposed son to be more attracted to men over women.
There is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that early childhood experiences, parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. However, studies do find that aspects of sexuality expression have an experiential basis and that parental attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation may affect how children of the parents experiment with behaviors related to a certain sexual orientation.
The American Academy of Pediatrics in stated: . The mechanisms for the development of a particular sexual orientation remain unclear, but the current literature and most scholars in the field state that one's sexual orientation is not a choice; that is, individuals do not choose to be homosexual or heterosexual.
A variety of theories about the influences on sexual orientation have been proposed. Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences.
In recent decades, biologically based theories have been favored by experts. Although there continues to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, there is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during early childhood.
Currently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual — including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents' sexual orientation. However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to be heterosexual.
The Royal College of Psychiatrists in stated: . Despite almost a century of psychoanalytic and psychological speculation, there is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that the nature of parenting or early childhood experiences play any role in the formation of a person's fundamental heterosexual or homosexual orientation. It would appear that sexual orientation is biological in nature, determined by a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment.
Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice, though sexual behaviour clearly is. The American Psychiatric Association stated: . No one knows what causes heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality. Homosexuality was once thought to be the result of troubled family dynamics or faulty psychological development. Those assumptions are now understood to have been based on misinformation and prejudice.
Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation — heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality — is determined by any particular factor or factors.
The evaluation of amici is that, although some of this research may be promising in facilitating greater understanding of the development of sexual orientation, it does not permit a conclusion based in sound science at the present time as to the cause or causes of sexual orientation, whether homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.
Sexual orientation change efforts are methods that aim to change a same-sex sexual orientation. They may include behavioral techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy , reparative therapy , psychoanalytic techniques, medical approaches, and religious and spiritual approaches. No major mental health professional organization sanctions efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation.
Efforts to change sexual orientation are unlikely to be successful and involve some risk of harm, contrary to the claims of SOCE practitioners and advocates. Even though the research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality, regardless of sexual orientation identity , the task force concluded that the population that undergoes SOCE tends to have strongly conservative religious views that lead them to seek to change their sexual orientation.
Thus, the appropriate application of affirmative therapeutic interventions for those who seek SOCE involves therapist acceptance, support, and understanding of clients and the facilitation of clients' active coping, social support, and identity exploration and development, without imposing a specific sexual orientation identity outcome.
In , the Pan American Health Organization the North and South American branch of the World Health Organization released a statement cautioning against services that purport to "cure" people with non-heterosexual sexual orientations as they lack medical justification and represent a serious threat to the health and well-being of affected people, and noted that the global scientific and professional consensus is that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexuality and cannot be regarded as a pathological condition.
The Pan American Health Organization further called on governments, academic institutions, professional associations and the media to expose these practices and to promote respect for diversity.
The World Health Organization affiliate further noted that gay minors have sometimes been forced to attend these "therapies" involuntarily, being deprived of their liberty and sometimes kept in isolation for several months, and that these findings were reported by several United Nations bodies.
Additionally, the Pan American Health Organization recommended that such malpractices be denounced and subject to sanctions and penalties under national legislation, as they constitute a violation of the ethical principles of health care and violate human rights that are protected by international and regional agreements. Varying definitions and strong social norms about sexuality can make sexual orientation difficult to quantify.
One of the earliest sexual orientation classification schemes was proposed in the s by Karl Heinrich Ulrichs in a series of pamphlets he published privately. An urning can be further categorized by degree of effeminacy.
These categories directly correspond with the categories of sexual orientation used today: heterosexual , homosexual , and bisexual. In the series of pamphlets, Ulrichs outlined a set of questions to determine if a man was an urning.
The definitions of each category of Ulrichs' classification scheme are as follows:. From at least the late nineteenth century in Europe, there was speculation that the range of human sexual response looked more like a continuum than two or three discrete categories.
Berlin sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld published a scheme in that measured the strength of an individual's sexual desire on two independent point scales, A homosexual and B heterosexual. Males do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and homosexual.
The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. Not all things are black nor all things white The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior, the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding of the realities of sex.
The Kinsey scale provides a classification of sexual orientation based on the relative amounts of heterosexual and homosexual experience or psychic response in one's history at a given time. The position on the scale is based on the relation of heterosexuality to homosexuality in one's history, rather than the actual amount of overt experience or psychic response. An individual can be assigned a position on the scale in accordance with the following definitions of the points of the scale: .
The Kinsey scale has been praised for dismissing the dichotomous classification of sexual orientation and allowing for a new perspective on human sexuality.
Despite seven categories being able to provide a more accurate description of sexual orientation than a dichotomous scale, it is still difficult to determine which category individuals should be assigned to. In a major study comparing sexual response in homosexual males and females, Masters and Johnson discuss the difficulty of assigning the Kinsey ratings to participants.
They report finding it difficult to assign ratings 2—4 for individuals with a large number of heterosexual and homosexual experiences. When there are a substantial number of heterosexual and homosexual experiences in one's history, it becomes difficult for that individual to be fully objective in assessing the relative amount of each. Weinrich et al. Valuable information was lost by collapsing the two values into one final score.
A person who has only predominantly same sex reactions is different from someone with relatively little reaction but lots of same sex experience. It would have been quite simple for Kinsey to have measured the two dimensions separately and report scores independently to avoid loss of information. Furthermore, there are more than two dimensions of sexuality to be considered. Beyond behavior and reactions, one could also assess attraction, identification, lifestyle etc.
This is addressed by the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. A third concern with the Kinsey scale is that it inappropriately measures heterosexuality and homosexuality on the same scale, making one a tradeoff of the other. However, if they are considered as separate dimensions one can be simultaneously very masculine and very feminine. Similarly, considering heterosexuality and homosexuality on separate scales would allow one to be both very heterosexual and very homosexual or not very much of either.
When they are measured independently, the degree of heterosexual and homosexual can be independently determined, rather than the balance between heterosexual and homosexual as determined using the Kinsey Scale. In response to the criticism of the Kinsey scale only measuring two dimensions of sexual orientation, Fritz Klein developed the Klein sexual orientation grid KSOG , a multidimensional scale for describing sexual orientation.
Introduced in Klein's book The Bisexual Option , the KSOG uses a 7-point scale to assess seven different dimensions of sexuality at three different points in an individual's life: past from early adolescence up to one year ago , present within the last 12 months , and ideal what would you choose if it were completely your choice.
The Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation SASO was developed to address the major concerns with the Kinsey Scale and Klein Sexual Orientation Grid and as such, measures sexual orientation on a continuum, considers various dimensions of sexual orientation, and considers homosexuality and heterosexuality separately. Rather than providing a final solution to the question of how to best measure sexual orientation, the SASO is meant to provoke discussion and debate about measurements of sexual orientation.
The SASO consists of 12 questions. Six of these questions assess sexual attraction, four assess sexual behavior, and two assess sexual orientation identity. For each question on the scale that measures homosexuality there is a corresponding question that measures heterosexuality giving six matching pairs of questions.
Taken all together, the six pairs of questions and responses provide a profile of an individual's sexual orientation. However, results can be further simplified into four summaries that look specifically at responses that correspond to either homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality or asexuality.
Of all the questions on the scale, Sell considered those assessing sexual attraction to be the most important as sexual attraction is a better reflection of the concept of sexual orientation which he defined as "extent of sexual attractions toward members of the other, same, both sexes or neither" than either sexual identity or sexual behavior.
Identity and behavior are measured as supplemental information because they are both closely tied to sexual attraction and sexual orientation. Major criticisms of the SASO have not been established, but a concern is that the reliability and validity remains largely unexamined. Research focusing on sexual orientation uses scales of assessment to identify who belongs in which sexual population group.
It is assumed that these scales will be able to reliably identify and categorize people by their sexual orientation. However, it is difficult to determine an individual's sexual orientation through scales of assessment, due to ambiguity regarding the definition of sexual orientation. Generally, there are three components of sexual orientation used in assessment.
Their definitions and examples of how they may be assessed are as follows:. Though sexual attraction, behavior, and identity are all components of sexual orientation, if a person defined by one of these dimensions were congruent with those defined by another dimension it would not matter which was used in assessing orientation, but this is not the case. There is "little coherent relationship between the amount and mix of homosexual and heterosexual behavior in a person's biography and that person's choice to label himself or herself as bisexual, homosexual, or heterosexual".
For example, a woman may have fantasies or thoughts about sex with other women but never act on these thoughts and only have sex with opposite gender partners. If sexual orientation was being assessed based on one's sexual attraction then this individual would be considered homosexual, but her behavior indicates heterosexuality.
As there is no research indicating which of the three components is essential in defining sexual orientation, all three are used independently and provide different conclusions regarding sexual orientation.
Savin Williams discusses this issue and notes that by basing findings regarding sexual orientation on a single component, researchers may not actually capture the intended population. For example, if homosexual is defined by same sex behavior, gay virgins are omitted, heterosexuals engaging in same sex behavior for other reasons than preferred sexual arousal are miscounted, and those with same sex attraction who only have opposite-sex relations are excluded.
One of the uses for scales that assess sexual orientation is determining what the prevalence of different sexual orientations are within a population. Depending on subject's age, culture and sex, the prevalence rates of homosexuality vary depending on which component of sexual orientation is being assessed: sexual attraction, sexual behavior, or sexual identity. Assessing sexual attraction will yield the greatest prevalence of homosexuality in a population whereby the proportion of individuals indicating they are same sex attracted is two to three times greater than the proportion reporting same sex behavior or identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
Furthermore, reports of same sex behavior usually exceed those of gay, lesbian, or bisexual identification. The variance in prevalence rates is reflected in people's inconsistent responses to the different components of sexual orientation within a study and the instability of their responses over time.
Laumann et al. Furthermore, women who relinquished bisexual and lesbian identification did not relinquish same sex sexuality and acknowledged the possibility for future same sex attractions or behaviour. One woman stated "I'm mainly straight but I'm one of those people who, if the right circumstance came along, would change my viewpoint". Depending on which component of sexual orientation is being assessed and referenced, different conclusions can be drawn about the prevalence rate of homosexuality which has real world consequences.
Knowing how much of the population is made up of homosexual individuals influences how this population may be seen or treated by the public and government bodies. Voeller generalized this finding and used it as part of the modern gay rights movement to convince politicians and the public that "we [gays and lesbians] are everywhere".
In the paper "Who's Gay? Does It Matter? To measure attraction and arousal he proposed that biological measures should be developed and used. Secondly, Savin-Williams suggests that researchers should forsake the general notion of sexual orientation altogether and assess only those components that are relevant to the research question being investigated.
For example:. Means typically used include surveys, interviews, cross-cultural studies, physical arousal measurements  sexual behavior, sexual fantasy, or a pattern of erotic arousal.
Studying human sexual arousal has proved a fruitful way of understanding how men and women differ as genders and in terms of sexual orientation. A clinical measurement may use penile or vaginal photoplethysmography , where genital engorgement with blood is measured in response to exposure to different erotic material. Some researchers who study sexual orientation argue that the concept may not apply similarly to men and women. A study of sexual arousal patterns  found that women, when viewing erotic films which show female-female, male-male and male-female sexual activity oral sex or penetration , have patterns of arousal which do not match their declared sexual orientations as well as men's.
That is, heterosexual and lesbian women's sexual arousal to erotic films do not differ significantly by the genders of the participants male or female or by the type of sexual activity heterosexual or homosexual. On the contrary, men's sexual arousal patterns tend to be more in line with their stated orientations, with heterosexual men showing more penis arousal to female-female sexual activity and less arousal to female-male and male-male sexual stimuli, and homosexual and bisexual men being more aroused by films depicting male-male intercourse and less aroused by other stimuli.
Another study on men and women's patterns of sexual arousal confirmed  that men and women have different patterns of arousal, independent of their sexual orientations. The study found that women's genitals become aroused to both human and nonhuman stimuli from movies showing humans of both genders having sex heterosexual and homosexual and from videos showing non-human primates bonobos having sex.
Men did not show any sexual arousal to non-human visual stimuli, their arousal patterns being in line with their specific sexual interest women for heterosexual men and men for homosexual men. These studies suggest that men and women are different in terms of sexual arousal patterns and that this is also reflected in how their genitals react to sexual stimuli of both genders or even to non-human stimuli. Sexual orientation has many dimensions attractions, behavior , identity , of which sexual arousal is the only product of sexual attractions which can be measured at present with some degree of physical precision.
Thus, the fact that women are aroused by seeing non-human primates having sex does not mean that women's sexual orientation includes this type of sexual interest. Some researchers argue that women's sexual orientation depends less on their patterns of sexual arousal than men's and that other components of sexual orientation like emotional attachment must be taken into account when describing women's sexual orientations. In contrast, men's sexual orientations tend to be primarily focused on the physical component of attractions and, thus, their sexual feelings are more exclusively oriented according to sex.
More recently, scientists have started to focus on measuring changes in brain activity related to sexual arousal, by using brain-scanning techniques.
A study on how heterosexual and homosexual men's brains react to seeing pictures of naked men and women has found  that both hetero- and homosexual men react positively to seeing their preferred sex, using the same brain regions. The only significant group difference between these orientations was found in the amygdala , a brain region known to be involved in regulating fear. Social systems such as religion, language and ethnic traditions can have a powerful impact on realization of sexual orientation.
Influences of culture may complicate the process of measuring sexual orientation. The majority of empirical and clinical research on LGBT populations are done with largely white, middle-class, well-educated samples, however there are pockets of research that document various other cultural groups, although these are frequently limited in diversity of gender and sexual orientation of the subjects.
Individuals may or may not consider their sexual orientation to define their sexual identity , as they may experience various degrees of fluidity of sexuality ,  or may simply identify more strongly with another aspect of their identity such as family role. American culture puts a great emphasis on individual attributes, and views the self as unchangeable and constant. In contrast, East Asian cultures put a great emphasis on a person's social role within social hierarchies, and view the self as fluid and malleable.
Translation is a major obstacle when comparing different cultures. Many English terms lack equivalents in other languages, while concepts and words from other languages fail to be reflected in the English language. Language can also be used to signal sexual orientation to others.
Other words may pick up new layers or meaning. One person may presume knowledge of another person's sexual orientation based upon perceived characteristics, such as appearance, clothing, tone of voice, and accompaniment by and behavior with other people.
The attempt to detect sexual orientation in social situations is known as gaydar ; some studies have found that guesses based on face photos perform better than chance. Perceived sexual orientation may affect how a person is treated. In Euro-American cultures, sexual orientation is defined by the gender s of the people a person is romantically or sexually attracted to. Euro-American culture generally assumes heterosexuality, unless otherwise specified. Cultural norms, values, traditions and laws facilitate heterosexuality,  including constructs of marriage and family.
In this distinction, the passive role is typically associated with femininity or inferiority, while the active role is typically associated with masculinity or superiority. While men who consistently occupied the passive role were recognized as a distinct group by locals, men who have sex with only women, and men who have sex with women and men, were not differentiated. In the United States, non-Caucasian LGBT individuals may find themselves in a double minority, where they are neither fully accepted or understood by mainly Caucasian LGBT communities, nor are they accepted by their own ethnic group.
Sexuality in the context of religion is often a controversial subject, especially that of sexual orientation. In the past, various sects have viewed homosexuality from a negative point of view and had punishments for same-sex relationships. In modern times, an increasing number of religions and religious denominations accept homosexuality. It is possible to integrate sexual identity and religious identity, depending on the interpretation of religious texts.
Some religious organizations object to the concept of sexual orientation entirely. In the revision of the code of ethics of the American Association of Christian Counselors, members are forbidden to "describe or reduce human identity and nature to sexual orientation or reference," even while counselors must acknowledge the client's fundamental right to self-determination.
The internet has influenced sexual orientation in two ways: it is a common mode of discourse on the subject of sexual orientation and sexual identity, and therefore shapes popular conceptions;  and it allows anonymous attainment of sexual partners, as well as facilitates communication and connection between greater numbers of people.
The multiple aspects of sexual orientation and the boundary-drawing problems already described create methodological challenges for the study of the demographics of sexual orientation.
Determining the frequency of various sexual orientations in real-world populations is difficult and controversial. Modern scientific surveys find that the majority of people report a heterosexual orientation. Most of these statistical findings are in the range of 2. Estimates for the percentage of the population that are bisexual vary widely, at least in part due to differing definitions of bisexuality. Some studies only consider a person bisexual if they are nearly equally attracted to both sexes, and others consider a person bisexual if they are at all attracted to the same sex for otherwise mostly heterosexual persons or to the opposite sex for otherwise mostly homosexual persons.
A small percentage of people are not sexually attracted to anyone asexuality. Kinsey et al. Kinsey reported that when the individuals' behavior as well as their identity are analyzed, a significant number of people appeared to be at least somewhat bisexual — i.
However, only a small minority can be considered fully bisexual with an equal attraction to both sexes. Kinsey's methods have been criticized as flawed, particularly with regard to the randomness of his sample population, which included prison inmates, male prostitutes and those who willingly participated in discussion of previously taboo sexual topics.
Nevertheless, Paul Gebhard , subsequent director of the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research , reexamined the data in the Kinsey Reports and concluded that removing the prison inmates and prostitutes barely affected the results. Because sexual orientation is complex and multi-dimensional, some academics and researchers, especially in queer studies , have argued that it is a historical and social construction.
In , philosopher and historian Michel Foucault argued in The History of Sexuality that homosexuality as an identity did not exist in the eighteenth century; that people instead spoke of "sodomy," which referred to sexual acts. Sodomy was a crime that was often ignored, but sometimes punished severely see sodomy law. He wrote, "'Sexuality' is an invention of the modern state, the industrial revolution, and capitalism.
Sexual orientation is argued as a concept that evolved in the industrialized West, and there is a controversy as to the universality of its application in other societies or cultures. Heterosexuality and homosexuality are terms often used in European and American cultures to encompass a person's entire social identity, which includes self and personality [ citation needed ].
In Western cultures, some people speak meaningfully of gay, lesbian, and bisexual identities and communities. In other cultures, homosexuality and heterosexual labels do not emphasize an entire social identity or indicate community affiliation based on sexual orientation. Some historians and researchers [ who? For example, in many English-speaking nations, it is assumed that same-sex kissing, particularly between men, is a sign of homosexuality, whereas various types of same-sex kissing are common expressions of friendship in other nations.
Also, many modern and historic cultures have formal ceremonies expressing long-term commitment between same-sex friends, even though homosexuality itself is taboo within the cultures. Two researchers, raising 'serious doubt whether sexual orientation is a valid concept at all,' warned against increasing politicization of this area.
Professor Michael King stated, "The conclusion reached by scientists who have investigated the origins and stability of sexual orientation is that it is a human characteristic that is formed early in life, and is resistant to change. Scientific evidence on the origins of homosexuality is considered relevant to theological and social debate because it undermines suggestions that sexual orientation is a choice.
Legally as well, a person's sexual orientation is hard to establish as either an intrinsic or a binary quality. In , law professor David Cruz wrote that "sexual orientation and the related concept homosexuality might plausibly refer to a variety of different attributes, singly or in combination.
What is not immediately clear is whether one conception is most suited to all social, legal, and constitutional purposes. Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the book, see Sexual Preference book. See also: Sexual identity , Human sexual activity , and Situational sexual behavior. Main article: Androphilia and gynephilia. Rodriguez Rust . Main article: Sexual fluidity. Main article: Biology and sexual orientation. Main article: Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation.
Main article: Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation. Main article: Environment and sexual orientation. Main articles: Sexual orientation change efforts and Conversion therapy. Main article: Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. See also: African-American culture and sexual orientation.
See also: LGBT stereotypes. Main article: Demographics of sexual orientation. See also: Queer theory and Human male sexuality. Human sexuality portal LGBT portal.
American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on August 8, Retrieved August 10, American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved January 1, Contemporary Sexuality. Sex and Society. Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved February 2, Columbia University Press. Retrieved October 3, Retrieved March 13, Retrieved July 19, Journal of Sex Research.
The republic of choice: law, authority, and culture. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 8 January Sexual revolutions: psychoanalysis, history and the father. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved February 10, Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice. Cengage Learning. Retrieved February 11, The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing.
Elsevier Health Sciences. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Oxford University Press. The Biology of Homosexuality. The Royal College of Psychiatrists. Retrieved 13 June Southern California Law Review. Review of General Psychology.
Archived from the original on Among the more common forms so documented were common-law marriage ; morganatic marriage , in which titles and property do not pass to children; exchange marriage , in which a sister and a brother from one family marry a brother and a sister from another; and group marriages based on polygyny co-wives or polyandry co-husbands.
Ideal matches have included those between cross-cousins , between parallel cousins, to a group of sisters in polygyny or brothers in polyandry , or between different age sets. In many cultures the exchange of some form of surety, such as bride service, bridewealth , or dowry , has been a traditional part of the marriage contract. Cultures that openly accepted homosexuality, of which there were many, generally had nonmarital categories of partnership through which such bonds could be expressed and socially regulated.
Conversely, other cultures essentially denied the existence of same-sex intimacy, or at least deemed it an unseemly topic for discussion of any sort. Over time the historical and traditional cultures originally recorded by the likes of Bachofen and Morgan slowly succumbed to the homogenization imposed by colonialism.
Although a multiplicity of marriage practices once existed, conquering nations typically forced local cultures to conform to colonial belief and administrative systems. Whether Egyptian, Vijayanagaran, Roman, Ottoman, Mongol, Chinese, European, or other, empires have long fostered or, in some cases, imposed the widespread adoption of a relatively small number of religious and legal systems.
By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the perspectives of one or more of the world religions— Buddhism , Hinduism , Judaism , Islam , and Christianity —and their associated civil practices were often invoked during national discussions of same-sex marriage. Perhaps because systems of religion and systems of civil authority often reflect and support each other, the countries that had reached consensus on the issue by the early s tended to have a single dominant religious affiliation across the population; many such places had a single, state-sponsored religion.
This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmark , where the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops representing the state religion had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships.
In other cases, the cultural homogeneity supported by the dominant religion did not result in the application of doctrine to the civic realm but may nonetheless have fostered a smoother series of discussions among the citizenry: Belgium and Spain had legalized same-sex marriage, for instance, despite official opposition from their predominant religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church. The existence of religious pluralities within a country seems to have had a less determinate effect on the outcome of same-sex marriage debates.
In some such countries, including the United States , consensus on this issue was difficult to reach. On the other hand, the Netherlands —the first country to grant equal marriage rights to same-sex couples —was religiously diverse , as was Canada , which did so in Most of the world religions have at some points in their histories opposed same-sex marriage for one or more of the following stated reasons: homosexual acts violate natural law or divine intentions and are therefore immoral; passages in sacred texts condemn homosexual acts; and religious tradition recognizes only the marriage of one man and one woman as valid.
In the early 21st century, however, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all spoke with more than one voice on this issue. Orthodox Judaism opposed same-sex marriage, while the Reform, Reconstructionist, and Conservative traditions allowed for it. Most Christian denominations opposed it, while the United Church of Christ , the United Church of Canada , and the Religious Society of Friends Quakers took a more favourable stand or allowed individual churches autonomy in the matter.
The Unitarian Universalist churches and the gay-oriented Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches fully accepted same-sex marriage. Hinduism , without a sole leader or hierarchy , allowed some Hindus to accept the practice while others were virulently opposed. The three major schools of Buddhism —Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana—stressed the attainment of enlightenment as a basic theme; most Buddhist literature therefore viewed all marriage as a choice between the two individuals involved.
Sexuality is but one of many areas where religious and civic authority interact; definitions of the purpose of marriage is another.
In one view, the purpose of marriage is to ensure successful procreation and child rearing. A third perspective holds that marriage is an instrument of societal domination and so is not desirable.
A fourth is that relationships between consenting adults should not be regulated by the government. Although most religions subscribe to just one of these beliefs, it is not uncommon for two or more viewpoints to coexist within a given society. Proponents of the first view believe that the primary goal of marriage is to provide a relatively uniform social institution through which to produce and raise children. In their view, because male and female are both necessary for procreation, the privileges of marriage should be available only to opposite-sex couples.
In other words, partnerships involving sexual intimacy should have at least a notional potential for procreation. From this perspective, the movement to legally recognize same-sex marriage is a misguided attempt to deny the social, moral , and biological distinctions that foster the continued existence of society and so should be discouraged.
Among groups who feel strongly that same-sex marriage is problematic, there is also a tendency for the legal relationships of spouses, parents, and children to converge. Typically, these societies provide for the automatic inheritance of property between spouses, and between parents and children, and allow these close kin to co-own property without joint ownership contracts.
In addition, such societies often allow close kin a variety of automatic privileges such as sponsoring immigration visas or making medical decisions for one another; for those with whom one shares no close kin relationship, these privileges typically require legal interventions.
Such legal circumventions are usually more difficult for, and in some cases even prohibited to, same-sex couples.
We have known for decades that sexual orientation is partly heritable in men, adalah to studies of families in which some people are straight and some people are gay.
Both findings were confirmed in a study of gay and straight brothers in For the first time, individual genes have been identified that may influence how sexual orientation develops in boys and men, both in the womb and adalah life. This enabled them to home in on two genes whose variants seem to be linked to sexual orientation. What genes did they find and what do they do? One of the genes, which sits on chromosome 13, is active in a part of the homosexual called the diencephalon.
Interestingly, this adalah region contains the hypothalamus, which was identified in as homosexual in size between gay and straight men.
This was discovered by neuroscientist Simon LeVaywho says he is excited that the gene discovery seems to fit with what he found. Other research has found that this gene, called SLITRK6is active in the hypothalamus of male mice fetuses a few homosexual before they are born.
What is the other gene? This homosexual is found on chromosome 14 and is mainly active in the thyroid, but also the brain. Called TSHRit homosexual a type of receptor protein that recognises and binds to a hormone that stimulates the thyroid. In this way, the gene plays an important role in controlling thyroid function. The fact that TSHR seems homosexual be involved in sexual orientation fits with evidence that thyroid adalah seems to be linked to sexuality.
No, says Sanders, because many other factors play a role, including the environment. Because many genes and other factors seem likely to play a role in sexual orientation, this may explain why some people are bisexual or see sexual orientation as a spectrum.
What about women who are gay? Our biological understanding of homosexuality in women lags behind. Some researchers say adalah is partly because women who have sex adalah women tend to be more fluid in their sexual orientation.
There have been studies adalah that there is a genetic element to adalah in women, but more research has been done in men, says Sanders. Why should we care about the genetics of homosexual gay? The latest findings open the prospect to identifying the whole pathway of genes involved in both homosexual and heterosexual orientation, says Dean Hamer at the US National Institutes of Health, who led the study that pinpointed chromosome X back in But the real significance is that it takes us one step closer homosexual understanding the origins of one of the most fascinating and important features of homosexual beings.
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Underwater internet cables can detect offshore earthquakes Fossil of a newly-discovered mammal shows it had bizarre ears Modified BCG vaccine could prevent TB in cattle and help end culls Hospital visits go up after adalah with higher levels of air pollution Neanderthals adalah have died out due to sheer bad homosexual.
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Approximately 10% of those polled considered themselves to be predominantly homosexual. In , Diamond and colleagues performed a. In , genetic variations in a region on the X chromosome in men were linked to whether they were heterosexual or homosexual, and in.
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