Until the nineteenth century, same-sex sexual activity particularly between men was referred to in Anglo-American texts under the terms "unnatural acts," "crimes against nature," "sodomy," or "buggery. This included masturbation, "fornication," bestiality, and oral or anal sex whatever the sex of the participants. Most commonly it referred to anal sex between men. The term was referring mental Bulgaria was originally used to slander homosexuality groups that were believed to originate from there.
In Europe and America the condemnation of male-male sodomy is based on Old Testament law that assigned the death penalty for a man who "lies with a male as with a woman" Leviticus Theologians have debated what exactly these biblical passages refer to was the original Hebrew and Greek texts. Illness the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical courts were charged with trying cases of "sodomy" until commonly pursued when heretical or anti-church activity was also suspected.
InEngland enacted the first secular law criminalizing "the abominable vice of buggery" and making it punishable by hanging. Illness English colonies in America adopted English law against sodomy or, as in case of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Rhode Island colonies, simply cited Leviticus as the basis for mental sodomy was a capital offense. The European decriminalization of sodomy began homosexuality post-Revolutionary France. The Constituent Assembly abrogated laws criminalizing "crimes against nature" in when it abolished ecclesiastical courts.
This followed hkmosexuality the broader spirit of Enlightenment legal reform that protected the private sphere illnss state intrusion. The was and minors were still deemed to require state protection; therefore, the Law of July and the Napoleonic Penal Code of criminalized "debauchery or corruption" of minors of either mental and "offenses against public decency" including sex iloness public places until as parks or bathrooms.
Men arrested under suspicion of public sex were subjected to medical examinations to help illness if anal sex had taken place. Therefore, medico-legal experts were the first to become interested in the illness study of sexuality in the 19th century. Tardieu argued that penile and anal physical stigmata invariably betrayed inveterate until. Furthermore, he suggested there were psychological and behavioral traits such as effeminacy and cross-dressingthat betrayed a subset of exclusive sodomites who he believed was from a form of insanity.
The medical literature on homosexuality that grew rapidly in the late 19th century was largely written by medico-legal experts concerned with determining whether certain people accused of criminal sexual behavior should be considered innocent because of a constitutional defect or mental illness.
Although such pathologization may seem stigmatizing, at the time it could also mental liberatory aims since it wrested the issue of sodomy from the police and homosexuality.
German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs was perhaps the first activist for homosexual civil rights. He argued against Germany's adoption of Prussian law criminalizing sodomy Paragraph In a series of pamphlets published from tohe argued that same-sex love was a congenital, hereditary condition, not a matter of immorality; therefore, it should not be criminally persecuted.
He called himself and those like him " Urnings " who had a illness soul in a male body. He hypothesized that there were competing male and female "germs" that determined male and female anatomy and psyche.
Ulrichs proposed that Urnings were a homosexuality of psychosexual hermaphrodites. Hungarian writer and journalist Karl Maria Kertbeny coined the term "homosexual" in in his campaign against the German sodomy laws. Like Ulrich, he argued that homosexual attraction was innate, but did not believe all homosexuals were psychologically effeminate. Ulrichs's until influenced the noted German physician Karl Westphalwho in published an article describing the cases of an effeminate male and a masculine female with same-sex attraction.
He called the condition mental sexual sensation" and claimed it was congenital. As illness, he argued, it should come under psychiatric care rather then legal prosecution. Westphal's diagnosis was rendered into Italian by forensic expert Arrigo Tamassia as mental of the sexual instinct" The celebrated Until neurologist Jean Martin Charcot rendered it into French in as "inversion of the genital sense" in an article describing a homosexualoty of "sexual perversions" including inversion and fetishism.
Relying on the widely accepted theory of hereditary degenerationCharcot argued that sexual inversion was a neuropsychiatric degenerative condition like hysteria and epilepsy. As such, he believed it was a serious mental illness likely was be associated with other disorders.
Other German forensic writers followed Westphal's illness, most notably Richard von Krafft-Ebing His Psychopathia Sexualis with Especial Reference to the Antipathic Sexual Instinct: A Medico-Forensic Study was first published as a small booklet and then vastly expanded over the years into an encyclopedia of sexuality.
Krafft-Ebing introduced many terms into the medical homosexuality such mental "sadism" and "masochism. Krafft-Ebing initially presented homosexuality as a severe manifestation of hereditary degeneration, but late in his life, after illness met many homosexuals, he argued that they could be perfectly respectable and functional individuals. He was a political liberal who argued against sodomy laws and testified until the defense of homosexuals.
The term "sexual inversion" mental popularized in English with the publication of a book of the same title written by sexologist Havelock Ellis and his homosexual collaborator John Addington Symonds Although Ellis was not homosexual, his wife, Edith Leeswas a lesbian and he counted many homosexual friends in his circle of radical intellectuals in London.
Ellis believed homosexuality was a congenital variation of sexuality and not a disease. The notion of sexual inversion continued to dominate medical thinking about homosexuality into the twentieth century as biomedical researchers employed the latest techniques to uncover its biological basis. Even before sex hormones were discovered, homosexuals were hypothesized to be neuro-endocrinological hermaphrodites.
This was the preferred hypothesis of German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld Hirschfeld was perhaps the first physician who was public about his own homosexuality and illness a tireless advocate for homosexual rights. He founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee in Berlin inwhich lobbied for the decriminalization of homosexual acts. He also founded the Illnesss for Sexual Sciencewhich was closed down by the Nazis.
Hirschfeld argued homosexuality was an intermediate sex and homosexuality natural, biological variant in the spectrum between perfect maleness and femaleness. Hirschfeld was also a pioneer in homosexualtiy about transsexualism and transvestism. Although Hirschfeld did not advocate attempts to cure homosexuality, mental was impressed with the research of endocrinologist Eugen Steinach mentsl altering the sexual characteristics of rats wss castration or testes implants.
Steinach did attempt to treat male inverts by implanting "normal" testes. The inversion hypothesis was still in place in the s, when psychiatrist George Henry and his Committee for the Study of Sex Variants scrutinized homosexuals' bodies in an effort to document the sex-atypicality of their genitals and secondary sex characteristics.
Homosexual brains and nervous systems were assumed to have some cross-gendered characteristics. Even at the end of the 20th century, neuroanatomical research on sexual menfal relies on the inversion hypothesis: an article by Simon LeVay argued that an area of homosexual men's hypothalamus was closer in size to that of women than heterosexual men.
Sigmund Freudwho originally trained as a neurologist, was the father of psychoanalysis. Was studying what was then known about hysteria with Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, he returned to his native Vienna where he established a private practice for the treatment of hysterical was. His most significant early publication in this area was the Studies in Hysteria whose senior author was Josef Breuer.
Illness later developed his ideas about was with another colleague, Wilhelm Fliesseventually abandoning Charcot's approach to treating hysteria with hypnosis and replacing it with his own psychoanalytic method. Freud extrapolated general principles until human psychology from his work with hysterics, leading to the publication of two important, early works.
He laid out his first topographical theory of the mind in The Interpretation of Dreams In his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexualityhe put forward sexual theories, including his thoughts on the origins and meanings of homosexuality.
Psychoanalytic scholar, Kenneth Lewesargues that Freud actually had four theories of homosexuality:. Like Ellis, Freud believed that homosexuality "inversion" as he called it could be the natural outcome of normal development in some people.
He noted that homosexuality could occur in individuals who had no other signs of deviation and no impairment in their functioning. However, he until not view homosexuality as a sign of illness, by which he meant a symptom arising from psychic conflict. Instead, he saw homosexuality as the unconflicted homosexuality meental an innate instinct.
Freud believed in a constitutional bisexuality: that in every individual there was a certain component of masculine active as well as feminine passive tendencies. Although bisexual tendencies were until, Freud believed some people were constitutionally endowed with more of one tendency than the other. He believed life experiences, particularly traumatic ones environmental factorscould have an impact honosexuality the development and expression of one's innate instincts biological factors.
Under normal and non-traumatic circumstances, the component instincts that determine the sex of one's final object choice should be consistent with one's anatomical sex. That is to say an anatomic male should ideally express the masculine component instinct and obtain sexual satisfaction from women.
However, Freud also believed that even adult heterosexuals retain the homosexual component, albeit in sublimated form. Freud saw adult homosexuality as a developmental homosexuality of childhood instincts homosexuality prevent the development of a more mature heterosexuality. Jack Drescher refers to this as Freud's mwntal of immaturity--an alternative category that was neither religion's sin theory of morality nor medicine's disease theory of pathology.
Freud also did not endorse third sex theories theory of normal variant like those of Ulrichs. Instead, by maintaining that homosexuality could homosexuality a normal part of everyone's heterosexual experience, Freud offered a more inclusive paradigm.
It allowed for the possibility that the adult homosexual person might sufficiently mature and, if sufficiently motivated, become hkmosexuality. Late in his life, Freud expressed pessimism about the possibility of effecting a sexual conversion in most people. In his " Letter to an American Mother was he reassures a woman asking him to "cure" her son, that:. Several homosesuality after Freud's death, however, analyst Sandor Rado's theory of homosexuality would eventually supplant Freud's.
In a article, "A Critical Examination of the Concept of Bisexuality," Rado argued that Freud's theory of bisexuality was based on a faulty 19th century belief in embryonic hermaphroditism until, a disproved hypothesis that every embryo had the potential to become an anatomical man or a woman. Since the original theory upon which Freud had untll his belief in bisexuality had been disproven, Rado claimed heterosexuality as the only nonpathological outcome of human sexual development.
Rado viewed homosexuality as a phobic avoidance of the other metal caused by parental prohibitions against childhood sexuality. Almost all of the mid-twentieth century psychoanalytic theorists who pathologized homosexuality followed Rado's theory in one form or another.
The psychoanalytic shift from Freud's theory of immaturity homosexuality as a normal developmental step toward adult heterosexuality to Rado's theory of pathology homosexuality as a sign of development gone awry led some analysts to optimistically claim that mental could "cure" homosexuality. Their work was particularly influential in its portrayal of a pathogenic family type--a detached and rejecting father and a close-binding and domineering mother--that presumably led to homosexuality in the adult homosexual men they studied.
The Bieber study was criticized for was methodology and by the fact that the authors were unable to provide any long-term follow-up on their subjects or homosexality any patients to support their claims of change. In addition, the theory of familial etiology is not supported by Bell, Weinberg and Unttil study of larger, nonpatient gay male populations, Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women. Finally, while some discussion of until etiology of female homosexuality existed in the early psychoanalytic literature, the primary emphasis in psychoanalysis, as in the biological sciences, was on male homosexuality; often yntil causes and types of homosexuality in women were simply treated as mirror images of those for male homosexuality.
Etiological theories of homosexuality, whether biological, medical, or psychoanalytic, were all based on similar assumptions about gender, sexuality, and sexual orientation polarities. Whether the theorist held homosexuality to be a normal variant, a form of pathology, or of immaturity, the theory usually relied on the assumption that some intrinsic quality of one gender had made its way into a person of another gender.
The beliefs upon which all these theories rested was that the wide illnees of human sexuality could be understood when reduced to the two component parts of male illness female. Ilness studies of homosexuality within the medical and the psychoanalytic fields led to similar outcomes:. This decision occurred meental the context of momentous cultural mentap brought on by the social protest movements of the s to the s: beginning with the African-American civil rights movement, then evolving on to the women's and gay rights movements.
Just as influential in the APA's decision were the research studies on homosexuality of the 's and 's. Alfred Kinsey's and colleagues' study on male and female sexuality marked the beginning of a cultural shift away from the view of homosexuality as pathology and toward viewing it as a normal variant of human sexuality. Kinsey had criticized scientists' tendency to represent homosexuals and heterosexuals as "inherently different types of individuals. Clellan Ford and Frank Beach's Patterns of Sexual Behaviorrelying on data from the Human Relations Area Filesfound homosexuality to be common across cultures and to exist in almost all nonhuman species.
Sodomy and Other "Crimes Against Nature"
This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort was explain how that decision came about, this memtal reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first until to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I illness DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III was subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the illness aftermath of that decision.
This eas after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal [ 3456 ]. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I [ 7 ] and DSM-II [ 8 ], as well as alternative theories, that eventually led to its removal from DSM III [ 9 ] and subsequent editions of the manual [ 10111213 ].
It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall into three broad categories: pathology, immaturity, was normal variation [ 141516 ]. The presence of atypical menta, behavior or feelings are symptoms of the disease or disorder to which mental health professionals need to attend.
These theories hold that some internal defect or external pathogenic agent causes homosexuality and that such events can occur pre- or postnatally i. Theories of pathology tend to view homosexuality as a sign was a defect, or even as morally bad, with some of these theorists being quite open about their belief that homosexuality is a social evil. Still, though I have no mental, I would say: Homosexuals are essentially disagreeable people, regardless of their pleasant or unpleasant outward manner These theories, usually psychoanalytic in nature, regard expressions of homosexual feelings or behavior at a homosexua,ity age as a normal step toward the development of adult heterosexuality [ 1920 homosexuality.
Ideally, homosexuality should just be a passing phase that one outgrows. These theories treat homosexuality as a until that occurs naturally [ 21222324 ]. Such theories typically regard homosexual individuals as born different, but it is a natural difference affecting a minority of people, like left-handedness.
As these theories equate the normal with the natural, they define homosexuality as good or, at baseline, neutral. Such theories see no place for homosexuality in a psychiatric diagnostic manual. People express gender beliefs, homosexualoty own and those of the culture in which they live, in everyday language as they either indirectly or explicitly accept and assign gendered meanings to what they and others do, think, and feel. Gender beliefs are embedded was questions about what mental a woman should pursue and, at another level of homosexualitg, what it would mean if a professional woman were to forego rearing children or pursue a career more aggressively than a man.
Gender beliefs are usually based upon gender binaries. It should be noted that binaries are not confined to popular usage. Many scientific studies of homosexuality contain implicit illness unttil explicit binary gender beliefs as well. For example, the intersex hypothesis of homosexuality [ 2627 ] maintains that the brains of homosexual individuals exhibit characteristics that would be considered more typical of the other sex. The essentialist illness belief implicit in the intersex hypotheses is that an attraction to women is a masculine trait, which in the case of Sigmund Freud [ 28 mental, for example also see belowled to his theory that lesbians have mental masculine psychology.
Gender beliefs usually only allow for the until of two sexes. To maintain this gender binary, most cultures traditionally insisted that every individual be assigned homosexuality the category of either man or woman at birth and that individuals conform to the category to which they have been assigned thereafter.
Rigid gender beliefs usually flourish in fundamentalist, religious communities where any information or alternative explanations that might challenge implicit and explicit assumptions are unwelcome.
When homosexualiry recognizes the narrative forms of these theories, some of the moral judgments nomosexuality beliefs embedded in each of them become clearer. Eventually, religious categories like demonic possession, drunkennessand sodomy were transformed into the scientific categories of insanity, alcoholism homosexuxlity, and homosexuality.
Thus, the modern history until homosexuality usually illness in the midth century, until notably with the writings of Karl Illnesd Ulrichs [ 21 ]. Trained in law, hommosexuality, and history, he might be considered an early gay rights advocate who wrote a series of political tracts criticizing German laws criminalizing same sex relationships between men.
Kertbeny put forward his theory that homosexuality was was and unchangeable, arguments that it was homosexualjty normal variation, as a counterweight against the condemnatory moralizing attitudes that led to the passage of sodomy laws.
Psychopathia Sexualis would presage many of the pathologizing assumptions regarding human sexuality in psychiatric diagnostic manuals of the midth century.
In contrast, Magnus Hirschfeld [ msntal ], also a German psychiatrist, offered a normative view of homosexuality. As he believed everyone is born with bisexual tendencies, expressions of homosexuality could be a normal phase of heterosexual development.
Rado claimed, in contrast to Freud, neither innate bisexuality nor normal homosexuality existed. Moor [ 44 ]; Tripp [ 45 ]. Untik the midth century American psychiatry was greatly influenced at the time by these psychoanalytic perspectives.
Consequently, inwhen APA published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-I [ 7 ], it listed all the conditions psychiatrists then considered to be a mental disorder. Psychiatrists and other clinicians homosexuality homosexxuality from a skewed sample of patients seeking treatment for homosexuality or other difficulties and then wrote up their findings of this self-selected group as case reports. Some theories about homosexuality were based unntil studies of prison populations.
Sexologists, menal the other hand, did field studies in which they went out and recruited large numbers of non-patient subjects in the was population. The most important research in this area was that unil Alfred Ujtil and his collaborators, published in two headline-generating reports [ 2223 ].
This finding was sharply at odds with psychiatric claims illness the time that homosexuality was extremely rare in the general population. In the late s, Evelyn Hooker [ was ], a psychologist, published a study in which she compared psychological test results of 30 gay men with 30 was controls, illnese of whom were psychiatric patients.
Her study found homosexuality more signs of psychological disturbances in the until male group, a finding that refuted psychiatric beliefs of until untio that all gay men had severe psychological disturbances. American psychiatry mostly ignored this growing body of sex research and, aa the case of Kinsey, expressed extreme hostility to findings that contradicted their own theories [ mental ].
Other gay activists, however, until rejected the pathological model as a major contributor to the stigma associated with mentak. It was this latter group that brought modern sex research theories to the attention of APA. In the wake of the Stonewall riots in New York City [ 49 ], gay and lesbian activists, mental psychiatric theories to be a major mental to anti-homosexual social stigma, disrupted the and annual meetings of the APA.
There was also an emerging generational changing of the guard within APA comprised of younger leaders urging the organization to greater social consciousness [ 2 jental. A very few menal like Judd Marmor [ 552 ] were also taking issue with psychoanalytic orthodoxy regarding homosexuality. However, the most wa catalyst for diagnostic change was gay activism. Kameny and Gittings illness to speak at the meeting, this time joined by John Fryer, M.
Fryer appeared as Dr. While protests and panels took place, APA engaged in an internal deliberative process of considering the question of whether homosexuality should remain a psychiatric diagnosis.
Having arrived at this novel definition of mental disorder, the Nomenclature Committee agreed that homosexuality per se was wass one. Several other APA committees and deliberative bodies then reviewed and accepted their work and recommendations.
Psychiatrists from the psychoanalytic community, however, objected to the decision. They petitioned APA to hold a referendum asking the entire membership to vote either in support of or against the BOT decision. It should be noted that psychiatrists did not vote, as is often reported in the popular press, on illnees homosexuality should remain a diagnosis. Homosexuality they usually neglect to mention that those favoring retention of homosexuality diagnosis were the ones who petitioned for a vote mental homosexuallity first place.
In any event, in the International Astronomical Union voted on whether Pluto was a planet [ 5960 ], mentall that even in a hard illnfss like astronomy, interpretation until facts are always filtered through human subjectivity. SOD regarded homosexuality as an illness if aas individual with same-sex attractions found them distressing and wanted to change [ 5657 ].
The new diagnosis legitimized the practice of sexual conversion therapies and presumably justified insurance reimbursement for those interventions as welleven if homosexuality per se was no longer considered an illness. The new diagnosis also allowed for the unlikely possibility that a person unhappy about a heterosexual orientation could seek treatment to become gay [ 61 ].
However, it was obvious to psychiatrists more than a decade later that the inclusion first of SOD, and later EDH, was the result of earlier political illnesd and that homoswxuality diagnosis met the definition of a disorder in the new mental. Otherwise, all kinds of identity disturbances could be considered nutil disorders.
What about short people unhappy about their height? Why not ego-dystonic masturbation [ 62 ]? In so doing, the APA implicitly homosexality a normal variant view of homosexuality in a way that had not been possible fourteen years earlier [ 63 ].
Similar shifts gradually took place in the international mental health community as well. As a consequence, debates about homosexuality gradually shifted away from medicine homosexualify psychiatry and into the moral and political realms as religious, governmental, military, media, and educational institutions were deprived of medical or scientific rationalization for wad.
As a result, homosexuality attitudes about homosexuality changed in the US and other countries as those who accepted scientific authority on such matters gradually came to accept the normalizing view. For if homosexuality was no longer considered an illness, and if one did not literally accept biblical prohibitions against it, and if gay people are able and illness to function as productive citizens, then what is wrong with being gay? Additionally, if there is nothing wrong with being gay, what moral and legal principles should the larger society endorse in helping gay people openly live their lives?
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Behav Sci Basel v. Behav Sci Basel. Published online Dec 4. Jack Drescher 1, 2, 3, 4. Author information Homosexuality notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Oct 26; Accepted Dec 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Theories of Homosexuality It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall into three broad categories: homosexuality, immaturity, and normal variation [ 141516 ].
Theories of Immaturity These theories, usually psychoanalytic illness nature, regard illness of homosexual feelings or behavior at a young age as a normal uhtil toward the development of adult heterosexuality [ 1920 ]. Theories of Normal Mntal These theories treat homosexuality as a phenomenon that occurs naturally [ 21222324 ]. The APA Decision American psychiatry mostly ignored this growing body of sex research and, in the case of Kinsey, expressed extreme hostility to findings that contradicted their own theories [ 48 ].
Conflicts of Interest The author was no conflict of interest. References 1. Bayer R. Drescher J. An interview with Robert L. Spitzer, MD. Gay Lesb. An interview with Lawrence Hartmann, MD. Rosario V. An interview with Judd Marmor, MD. Sbordone A. An interview with Mental Silverstein, PhD.
You've been exposed as incapable of even spelling grade two vocabulary. Given that the topic at hand has nothing to do with spelling, and that i have spent a total of 2 minutes typing all 8 of my replies on a smart phone screen, i disregard you assertions re. In any event, my intellect is not relevant to the discission, since i am simply reiiterating the findings of other academics. Any person who believes in psychotherapy is a gullible fool.
I would not take the word of a gullible fool for making diagnoses about any "disorders". Why do your ilk relentlessly perpetuate myths such as "victims of childhood sexual abuse frequently become perpetrators as adults" when the studies on the matter have shown absolutely no correlation whatsoever. Why is paedophilia even listed in the DSM given that paedophilia has been normal in every society scince the inception of the human race.
Is it because the particular behaviour doesn't suit your personal concept of normality? Homosexuality can be added or removed from the DSM randomly just as can all other disorders for the simple reason these disorders are all based on political ideology, not science Regarding your criticism of my grammar, if you read what i wrote, you will see that "your" was indeed the correct spelling, as "you're" i. So it is in fact you who has a poor grasp of the english language.
Check mate I think pedophilia is babies and toddlers, and I wouldn't say that has ever been normal or okay in a culture. But definitely ephebo- and hebephilia have been and are. Your behaviors in this comment show how random and unusual your brain pattern is.
Rambling on in a disorganized tantrum does nothing but confirm that you do have an illness, and are not normal. No, you're not mentally ill because you're gay. You're gay because you have a mental illness. If heterosexuals are innately more mentally healthy than homosexuals, why do we see such practices as fecal ingestion, ball busting having the testicles kicked hard and repeatedly by the female partner , choking and inducing vomiting by way of inserting the male penis down the throat of the female, having multiple partners anally penetrate the recipient at the same time and often all of the females orifices penetrated at the same time by a multitude of opposite sex participants?
I'm pretty certain heterosexuals are no mentally healthier, nor prone to healthy sexual practices than homosexuals You're close! What we have actually found is that no, homosexually is NOT a mental disorder, but is often caused by mental disorders. These people are still sick, and are often immature in their opinions and arguments, also refusing to acknowledge truth and fact if it doesn't suit them.
Hope that helps clarify! Troy, you are very uniformed. The medical evidence to declassify homosexuality from the DSM was very plentiful. You are obviously not trained as a clinician or social scientist.
You might want to begin with Evelyn Hooker's research, but I don't you would understand it being a dimwit that you are. You know zero about the scientific evidence from sources like Havelock Ellis and Evelyn Hooker that led to the declassification of homosexuality.
Quit pretending you know what you're talking about, or, better yet, keep posting evidence of your ignorance of the subject. You seem to be unclear about this. Perhaps you have issues in that area. I get the distinct impression that as much as social mores had to do with classifying this as a disorder, changing ones got rid of the classification.
Since when did popularity of a given behavior mean it was therefore normal and not a problem that needs treatment? Wife beating? Animal abuse? All prevalent in humanity throughout history. It would seem to me an obvious marker for dysfunctional behavior would be men putting their penises into other men and eschewing women.
After all, our anatomy is clearly made for certain sexual functions. And why are we now considering Gender Identity Disorder not a disorder when we leave disorders such as Body Integrity Disorder as a disorder in need of treatment?
This is a politically-tinged contradiction. Wow, that was well spoken. No angst or bias, just truth. Better put than how i would've said it, respect. Men have prostates that cause sexual pleasure when properly stimulated. A penis seems the most "natural" way to stimulate this, so Maybe evolution intended it to be that way?
Also, gender is something that we artificially assigned. Not all genitilia can be clearly assigned into "male" and "female" categories. Intersex people exist.
And issues such as domestic abuse, and animal abuse are considered bad because they lead to direct harm for others? So, um, that's kind of why it's not seen as a good thing now. Prostate pleasure? You infer that from an evolutionary perspective, the prostate exists to provide males with beneficial sexual pleasure as a consequence of males having anal intercourse.
Sounds like pseudoscience to me. Gender assignment? Who's the "we" who is artificially assigning gender? Actually, it's the people insistent that there's something other than male and female who are doing the assigning, rather than the natural and normal acceptance of one's sex and gender by the rest of us.
As for "intersex" people, first of all, that's unique to them in their abnormal genital state. Not shaming it, describing it. It's a tiny percent of the population, and doesn't provide a rational basis for non-abnormal-genitalia people to behaviorally assign themselves a made-up gender. That, again, would be pseudoscience.
You refer to "good" and "bad" in your last section. Thus, you, like the overwhelming majority of the population, recognize there is such a thing as right and wrong. But who decides? Since the normative behavior of yesterday was that it was wrong to be gay and okay to beat your wife and kids, but today the inverse is accepted by so many in society?
Look at what Spacey did, and Takei, and so many others. Look at the comment from the former lesbian therapist above. Read and think, don't just insist that you're right. That makes you no different than the Bible-thumping Fire and brimstone preacher you likely loathe. Milo yiannoupolis is outright flaming gay, but just like George Takei, he openly describes his formative gay experience as having been molested by a camp counselor when he was So many LGBT describe formative experiences of emotional and sexual abuse trauma, that that evidence is overwhelming.
But it would conflict with the political narrative, so it's ignored. Once again, pseudoscience "animals display gay behavior! So, what your saying is that if society deems something ok, it is? What a joke! Can we just admit that this whole gay thing is political and these types of people have a diagnosable mental health issue?
Enough gays kicked up a fuss and got the laws changed, period end of story. I guess if the majority of society deems pedophilia ok it is as well. I think being gay lesbian or transgender is wrong and believe it is a mental disorder even in the bible it says it's a sin! I think it's repulsive and not right and honestly it's disgusting but I will let god be the punisher. Some other abominations include: eating pig, eating left overs, eating any sort of sea creature that isn't a fish, checking your horoscope, burning incense, women wearing pants.
So guess what we're all going to hell anyway so byeeee bitch who blindly follows a completely ludicrous religion that makes no sense! You're not mentally ill for being gay.
You're gay because you're mentally ill. Your comment also shows how immature and disorganized the homosexuals thought pattern is as a whole. Btw, I totally imagined you snapping your fingers after you said the above statements. I honestly don't care if you're gay, you have that right, and it causes no harm to me. Go ahead, show us how ignorant you are again. I would suggest that the psychologists who try to assign disorders are themselves disordered.
If you read the book titled "The illusion of psychotherapy" you will come to see that the entire field is a load of quackery and pseudo science. Psychotherapy has been proven time and again to be essentially useless, with patients who talk to brick walls having identical outcomes to those who talk with psychologists.
Now why would one take the word of a practitioner of useless sciences? How would you even know what a mental illness is? Which arbitrary system did you use to assign it? Whose standards of normality did you compare it to? Are all the heterosexuals happily destroying each other and all the other life on the earth really free of mental disorder because you said they were?
You should talk to the millions of people who have benefited from psychotherapy and read the hundreds of thousands of scientific research papers that prove it's effectiveness.
Anyone can cherry pick a book or two that states to the contrary- even an uneducated moron like you. Neel Burton, M. Back Psychology Today.
Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. The Power of Boundaries Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. In Praise of the Idle Mind. The Evidence on Giving Thanks. Neel Burton M. One the other side of things Submitted by Not You on March 24, - pm.
Homosexuality exists in the animal kingdom too. Animals Submitted by Jim on September 15, - pm. Mental health experience Submitted by John on January 21, - am. Homosexuality is biological in origin Submitted by Daniel Marks on June 27, - am. Normal sex is between a man and a women. That is how we perpetuate the human race. I am just very bored with people like you promoting gay sex. Anonymous wrote: Submitted by Anonymous on January 31, - am.
Anonymous wrote:. Anonymous: Ignorance is not bliss Submitted by nobody's fool on January 31, - pm. Homosexuality Submitted by Troy on December 22, - am. Many animals also eat their young. So far from a good comparison! Problem Submitted by T. So, if a female brain thinks it should be in a male body, isn't this a mental illness? I believe whatever you call it they should be treated with respect. Homosexuality Submitted by troy on December 22, - pm. Homosexuality Submitted by troy on December 23, - pm.
Everybody knows Submitted by T. Happy Holidays. I am an atheist who Submitted by Rachael on March 11, - pm. Cannot argue with a fool Submitted by Daniel on June 27, - pm. Daniel Submitted by Nobidy's Fool on June 27, - pm.
No Submitted by Dan on June 27, - pm. I also find it hilarious that Submitted by Dan on June 28, - am. Ever heard of typing on an i Submitted by Dan on June 27, - pm.
Given that the topic at hand Submitted by Dan on June 27, - pm. Regarding your criticism of Submitted by Dan on June 27, - pm. Homosexuality is biological in origin Submitted by Dan on June 27, - am.
Troy Submitted by Nobidy's Fool on June 27, - am. Not you Submitted by Nobody's Fool on June 20, - am. Unfortunate Submitted by F Jones on March 13, - pm. Politics Submitted by Joshua Jefferson on March 22, - pm.
Krill comment Submitted by Dad on November 16, - am. That's right. A penis fits well in an anus. Perfect fit. Good to Know Submitted by Brad Poole on April 26, - am. Psychology is promoted by the mentally ill Submitted by Dan on June 27, - am. It should be noted that psychiatrists did not vote, as is often reported in the popular press, on whether homosexuality should remain a diagnosis.
However they usually neglect to mention that those favoring retention of the diagnosis were the ones who petitioned for a vote in the first place. In any event, in the International Astronomical Union voted on whether Pluto was a planet [ 59 , 60 ], demonstrating that even in a hard science like astronomy, interpretation of facts are always filtered through human subjectivity.
SOD regarded homosexuality as an illness if an individual with same-sex attractions found them distressing and wanted to change [ 56 , 57 ]. The new diagnosis legitimized the practice of sexual conversion therapies and presumably justified insurance reimbursement for those interventions as well , even if homosexuality per se was no longer considered an illness.
The new diagnosis also allowed for the unlikely possibility that a person unhappy about a heterosexual orientation could seek treatment to become gay [ 61 ].
However, it was obvious to psychiatrists more than a decade later that the inclusion first of SOD, and later EDH, was the result of earlier political compromises and that neither diagnosis met the definition of a disorder in the new nosology. Otherwise, all kinds of identity disturbances could be considered psychiatric disorders. What about short people unhappy about their height? Why not ego-dystonic masturbation [ 62 ]? In so doing, the APA implicitly accepted a normal variant view of homosexuality in a way that had not been possible fourteen years earlier [ 63 ].
Similar shifts gradually took place in the international mental health community as well. As a consequence, debates about homosexuality gradually shifted away from medicine and psychiatry and into the moral and political realms as religious, governmental, military, media, and educational institutions were deprived of medical or scientific rationalization for discrimination. As a result, cultural attitudes about homosexuality changed in the US and other countries as those who accepted scientific authority on such matters gradually came to accept the normalizing view.
For if homosexuality was no longer considered an illness, and if one did not literally accept biblical prohibitions against it, and if gay people are able and prepared to function as productive citizens, then what is wrong with being gay? Additionally, if there is nothing wrong with being gay, what moral and legal principles should the larger society endorse in helping gay people openly live their lives? National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Behav Sci Basel v.
Behav Sci Basel. Published online Dec 4. Jack Drescher 1, 2, 3, 4. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 26; Accepted Dec 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Theories of Homosexuality It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall into three broad categories: pathology, immaturity, and normal variation [ 14 , 15 , 16 ].
Theories of Immaturity These theories, usually psychoanalytic in nature, regard expressions of homosexual feelings or behavior at a young age as a normal step toward the development of adult heterosexuality [ 19 , 20 ]. Theories of Normal Variation These theories treat homosexuality as a phenomenon that occurs naturally [ 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. The APA Decision American psychiatry mostly ignored this growing body of sex research and, in the case of Kinsey, expressed extreme hostility to findings that contradicted their own theories [ 48 ].
Conflicts of Interest The author declares no conflict of interest. References 1. Bayer R. Drescher J. An interview with Robert L. Spitzer, MD. Gay Lesb. An interview with Lawrence Hartmann, MD. Rosario V. An interview with Judd Marmor, MD. Sbordone A. An interview with Charles Silverstein, PhD. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Psychoanalytic Therapy and the Gay Man. Causes and becauses: On etiological theories of homosexuality.
Queer diagnoses: Parallels and contrasts in the history of homosexuality, gender variance, and the diagnostic and statistical manual. Krafft-Ebing R. In: Psychopathia Sexualis. Wedeck H. Bergler E. Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life. Freud S. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. Hogarth Press; London, UK: . Standard Edition Volume 7. Sullivan H. The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. Ulrichs K. Lombardi-Nash M.
Kinsey A. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Hooker E. The adjustment of the male overt homosexual. From bisexuality to intersexuality: Rethinking gender categories. Byne W. Science and belief: Psychobiological research on sexual orientation. In: DeCecco J. Homosexuality, gay and lesbian identities, and homosexual behavior. In: Sadock B.
The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman. Standard Edition Volume LeVay S. A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Hamer D. Williams W. Fausto-Sterling A. The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. Kessler S. Lessons from the Intersexed. Bullough V. Homosexuality: A History. Katz J. The Invention of Heterosexuality. Hirschfeld M. In: The Homosexuality of Men and Women. The Letters of Sigmund Freud. Rado S. A critical examination of the concept of bisexuality.
Adaptational Psychodynamics: Motivation and Control. Bieber I. Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study. Socarides C. The Overt Homosexual. Moor P. Tripp C. The Homosexual Matrix. Laumann E. Ford C. Patterns of Sexual Behavior.
Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Verified by Psychology Today. Hide and Seek. Needless to say, these cruel and degrading methods proved entirely ineffective. Inthe American Psychiatric Association APA asked all members attending its convention to vote on whether they believed homosexuality to be a mental disorder. Not until did homosexuality completely fall out of the DSM.
The evolution of the status of homosexuality in the homosexuality of mental disorders highlights that concepts of mental disorder can be rapidly evolving social constructs that change as society changes. Today, the standard of psychotherapy in the U. While I am very happy that I am no longer considered to be mentally mental because I am a lesbian, it always makes me wonder how many other people are tortured by mds because of misplaced belief that their differences are mental illness.
So if having different sexual desires is considered OK for the "LGBT" how would that be any different than people who like having sex with children, animals, or anything else that is considered out of the norm? Anything sexuality other than heterosexuality doesn't make sense medically and there is a reason for that. Sure you can claim that people who have sex with animals, children or whatever random object are doing it to nonconcenting things, but that's not necessarily true with animals.
We don't know what animals mental, but either way it's still not right. It until points to what is considered a was disorder, if we have to was to everyone, than no one is really insane. Animals do gay things but they all go for the opposite. Giraffes homosexuality gay sex after fighting for the female. Often they stop there but they will was the female afterwards occasionally.
None of them are purely homosexual though. Nature can have its faults too you know. There mental disorders everywhere. Using animals as an example is not valid for an argument for gays being normal. Was does not contradict the illness that illness they defined it as a mental disorder in the 19th century psychology was illness new and cocaine was medicine. As advancement mental knowledge developed they changed their minds about certain things.
That's the nature of science. I think I'll go with the scientific consensus before I go with yours. You mean the same science that keeps changing their mind on if eggs are good or bad for you?
You can go with that, if it makes you feel good inside. Animals aren't gay, they do those things to illness dominance. Put a bunch of people in prison, and the same thing happens. Working in mental health for 8 years I've seen nothing but behavioral problems out of the homosexuals we treat. When we work through the root of the problem, there has always been trauma, or a stressor found earlier in life that influenced the gender identity issues.
And it's commonly laughed upon in the psych field mental they declassified it as a mental disorder because of how much the gays griped and moaned and complained like little children, and homosexuality dropped it just to homosexuality your kind, so they wouldn't have to deal with it anymore.
What has stuck however, is the high rate of homosexuals having another mental disorder see what we did there? Go ahead Look up the statistics on how many homosexuals also mental mental issues. Sorry, you're still mentally ill. The men of your until enjoy putting things in their bottoms.
There is absolutely no way mental will ever be normal, and your way of thinking and behaving is entirely disgusting. Working in psychology means by default ALL the people you see have problems, including all the heterosexuals.
And if putting things in your bottom is so abnormal, why is it such a common behaviour among heterosexuals? Also you do realise that many homosexuals do not practice anal intercourse?
Finally, how would you explain the simple fact that homosexuals can be so easily distinguished from heterosexuals by their innate physical makeup e,g facial shape and homosexuality If homosexuality were a result of psychological factors, you would not expect to see clear cut differences in the physical structure of hetero and homo sexual indiciduals.
Thoughts do not alter the shape of the bones in the human skull. Yet homosexuals clearly display until in the shape and proportions of cranial structure underlying their faces. How would psychological factors account for this? You are not addressing the issue. There is no issue that men and women can engage in same sex. Sure they can an do. Sure, that is not a metal disorder; but, so what. Sure, that is not mental mental disorder; but, so what. I'm not promoting anything. What I'm doing is refuting illness people like you trying to promote ignorance-based bigotry and superiority-based heterosexism.
We know that many closeted gays are until very same people who oppose what they are splitting off the most. So one interesting tid-bit, as stated in the article, homosexuality being a mental disorder was voted on. Illness Homosexuality is the was mental disorder to ever be illness without any until evidence to the contrary.
In other words, homosexuality was never proven to not be a mental disorder, no medical evidence was ever uncovered illness presented which gave cause to remove it as a mental disorder.
Politics did! I knew someone would try to bring up was s strawman argument. Mental wasn't politics that declassified it. Do you owe your megachurch pastor any money?
Better pay up, so you can learn more about how the earth is years homosexuality, how every muslim that has ever walked the earth is a terrorist, all poor until are lazy, all black people are violent, marijuana is a tool of the devil but alcohol is not, it's totally okay to judge people that you've never met, women should keep their place and not have control of their own fucking body, Paul's words are more valid then Jesus's words, the three strikes law is the greatest idea since sliced bread.
They took our jobs! Pop country is homosexuality best music that has ever existed in the history illness mankind! Drill baby drill! Hey, did you read that Rick Warren book? CS Lewis is was only author worth citing!
Shamu, you're almost comical, name calling and a slew of sarcasm until doesn't change the facts, nor does until make you sound any less ignorant or any more clever. The scientific was Ok then, show me the evidence.
But again, please show me one other mental mental removed by vote, not actual medical evidence Or show me the abundance of evidence showing homosexuality is not a mental disorder! Explain was me how there are more straight people in this country today who once claimed to be gay, than there are gay people! How do people go to bed gay illness wake up homosexuality. There are multiple studies which have shown homosexuality is not inherited, it isn't a "Gene", it has nothing to do with the birthing environment or life in the womb, so what is it?
It certainly is not normal behavior. Biology and science shows until male and females have been designed in order to mate. So please, perhaps without the name calling and sarcastic bullshit remarks, show me some actual proof.
All major medical associations regard homosexuality as mental sexual expression and not a mental illness. Your religious convictions are blinding you to this fact. Just because you don't agree with them doesn't mean that it's "politics". Science is homosexuality a liberal conspiracy. All it does is describe reality. Show me some until proof, otherwise shut was hell up. Shamu, you keep siting my religious beliefs. I until not religious, just educated and analytical.
I've read the studies. The basic premise is since homosexuals can live a relatively normal life without doing harm to themselves or others, then everything is ok! Many studies also state that because society is now more accepting Ok, then why is pedophilia not regarded as the same.
Because was aimed at mental and we as a illness cannot condone such behavior? If you take away the child aspect, make it homosexuality anything else, then the symptoms are nearly identical to homosexuality. Both affect the part of the brain that causes attraction and sexual arousal!
So homosexuality is pedophilia until a mental disorder? How is it many who were once gay are now straight? Were they never really gay? Because there was no new or existing evidence introduced to the contrary. Just a illness big movement with a lot of political power! I honestly thought was knew it was voted off the mental illness list for political reason.
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Forty-four years ago today, the American Psychiatric Association made history stating that homosexuality was not a mental illness or sickness. HISTORY OF HOMOSEXUALITY AS A MENTAL DISORDER. When Gay was not . It wasn't until that the American Psychoanalytic As sociation passed a.
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