Sexual behavior patterns and HIV risks in bisexual men compared to exclusively heterosexual and heterosexual men. Patrones de comportamiento sexual y de riesgo al VIH en hombres bisexuales comparados con hombres heterosexuales y homosexuales exclusivos. Harvard School of Public Health. Information from 8 men was obtained; however, the main analysis of this paper refers only to men sexually active in the previous 5 years.
This finding may imply that bisexual men in Mexico are an ineffective epidemiological bridge for HIV transmission.
Key words: HIV; household survey; homosexuality; bisexuality; condom use; Mexico. In the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, regional differences in the patterns of HIV transmission called attention to sexual diversity and cross-cultural differences in the patterns of sexual behavior. AIDS has severely affected homosexually active men since the beginning of the epidemic in the United States, Western Europe, and other countries with similar patterns of the epidemic.
Forty percent of the cumulative cases in women were sexually transmitted, the remaining were mainly related to blood transfusions. The information available, which was not routinely analyzed, pointed out that by the end ofthere were only 22 AIDS cases of newborns or infants whose father was reported to be bisexual, i. HIV transmission due to intravenous drug use was almost negligible 0. Questions concerning the role of bisexual men in sustaining a heterosexual epidemic still remain unanswered.
For instance, in one of the few studies involving bisexual men, it was concluded that bisexually identified men are unlikely to constitute a common vector for spreading HIV disease to women in San Francisco, California.
In previous communications, significant bisexual behavior has been reported among heterosexual interviewed in a crosssectional convenience sample of gay gathering places in six Mexican cities. Also, one of the most significant risks for HIV infection in homosexually active men is to practice both insertive and receptive anal intercourse; the most plausible explanation of this increased risk resides in the social construction of the pool from which potential sexual partners are drawn, with whom such a mixed behavior can be practiced.
Material and Methods. This sample was based on a multistage stratified probability area design. Eight thousand and sixty-eight non-institutionalized men between 15 and 60 years of age were interviewed from a total of 8 eligible households.
All men aged years living in each household were considered eligible respondents A sub-sample of 6 of those who were sexually active during the five years previous to the study was bisexual basis for most of the data analysis. Data analysis was conducted using a twostage variance formula to produce standard errors of parameter estimates, using the SUDAAN software package.
This software takes into account weights reflecting the sample design, as well as nonresponse and clustering of the sample.
Clustering in sampling designs may lead to larger standard errors, due to the similarity among individuals in contiguously sampled areas. Que loss of precision may be measured by the design effect, defined as "the multiplier to be applied to the variance of a survey estimate under simple random sampling to take account of the complex sample design" The design effects estimated for the sub-sample of homosexual and bisexual men were bisexual than 1.
However, for variables reflecting socio-economic status e. The p -values for cross-tabulations were calculated using a chi-squared test statistic analogous to the Pearson chi-squared test for nonsurvey data. However, when sample crosstabulations had counts of five or less observations per cell, Fisher's exact test was performed. Interviews included questions about socio-demographic variables, sexual behavior with males and with females and HIV risk perception.
The questions on sexual behavior were asked according to three recall periods: lifetime, past five years, and past year; in addition, some variables were obtained for the last sexual intercourse that might have been referred to variable times of reference but that were thought to be more reliable than responses linked to periods of reference.
The operational definition of heterosexual behavior included practices of oral, vaginal, or anal intercourse. The operational definition of homosexual behavior included having engaged in oral or anal intercourse with a male, or physical contact with other men during masturbation. However, it did not include activities in which no direct contact was reported.
The pattern of anal insertive or receptive behavior with other males was constructed from the number of male que partners with whom each of these practices was performed in the year prior to the interview.
In Table I population heterosexual for the Mexico City metropolitan area men by gender of sexual partners in different periods of reference are presented, according to the sample distribution of respondents.
An estimated 2. Half of the men who had had sex with a man in their lifetime had a male partner in the previous five years: que. Twenty-nine percent of the men who had had sex with a man in their lifetime had sex with males in the year previous to the interview: 0. The category of men who had had only male partners in the previous five years 0.
The demographic characteristics of the que who reported having been sexually active in the previous five years to the study que presented in Table II. Those who reported having que with other males in the previous five years were younger than exclusive heterosexuals. In addition, they had higher-level occupations e. As expected, men with exclusive heterosexual behavior were more frequently the head of the household, were married, and had children.
Men who had sex with both men and women in the reference period were less likely to be involved in stable relationships with women or with men when compared to exclusive heterosexuals or exclusive homosexuals. The behavior of heterosexual and bisexual men with women during the year previous to the interview is presented in Table III.
There was no significant difference in the number of lifetime female sexual partners between heterosexual and bisexual men. However, bisexual men were more likely to be sexually inactive with women during the previous year. Bisexual men reported a higher frequency of relationships with female sex workers than heterosexuals Sexual behavior with males is presented in Table IV.
The pattern of insertivereceptive behavior with male partners in the past year was remarkably different between homosexual and bisexual males Figure 1. Thirty-five percent of exclusively homosexual men did heterosexual practice insertive or receptive anal intercourse.
Five-percent practiced only insertive behavior. Twenty-seven percent practiced mixed behavior both insertive and receptive anal intercourse. Fourteen percent bisexual mixed practices. No bisexuals reported receptive intercourse exclusively or as the most frequently practiced behavior Figure 1. The most preferred sexual practices among bisexuals were oral insertive or being masturbated, rather than anal intercourse.
The pattern of behavior practiced in the last sexual encounter with a male partner showed significant differences in the frequency of oral and anal receptive behaviors, as well as in the proportion of men having sex with other men but not engaging in insertive or bisexual anal intercourse in bisexual and homosexual men.
Three percent of the respondents had a paid last sexual intercourse with a heterosexual all used a condom during that relationship. There were no significant differences in the frequency of condom use between exclusively homosexual and bisexual men, neither by sexual practice nor involvement of payment in the last sexual encounter with a male. The men who reported no condom use with one of their partner were less educated than those reporting condom use.
Only one of these 12 men reported having used a condom ever. Of their activities with bisexual men, only five of the 12 men reported insertive anal sex in the previous year; only one reported being anal receptive in the previous year, only other one reported having been penetrated in his lifetime both less than a dozen times in their lifetime.
Nine of the 12 reported less than five male lifetime sex partners; only one reported a current stable male partner. Only one subject reported more than lifetime sex partners; he was also the only one reporting having performed oral sex to other men; que 10 heterosexual the 12 performed oral insertive roles with their male partners. Only one reported sex with female commercial sex workers and none of them paid for sex with men; however, one reported having received payment for having sex with his last male partner.
The place in which the sexual encounters occurred was in the home of either one in seven of the 12 cases and in public places cars, saunas in the remaining five. These 12 men were more responsive to being asked to have sex with men, since nine of the 12 were asked to do so, while 10 of the 12 asked their female sex partners to have sex with heterosexual.
Twelve percent of the subjects reported having had at least one sexually transmitted infection in their lifetime. Bisexual men had a significantly higher frequency of urethritis in the past year than men in the other categories: 0.
Reports on having had lice in the past year was the only situation in which homosexuals had a higher reported frequency: 0. Only 0. The present study was conducted on a population-based representative sample of adult men in Mexico Heterosexual.
The patterns of sexual behavior involving risks for HIV transmission were described according to the gender of sexual partners during the previous five years.
While few bisexual men had risky homosexual practices, and therefore a potential lower probability of being infected, their behavior with women, as well as that of exclusively heterosexual men, was indeed a potential means of transmission for sexually transmitted agents, including HIV, had they been infected.
Anal intercourse with women was practiced by a significantly higher proportion of bisexuals than heterosexuals. Regarding their sexual behavior with males, bisexuals reported significantly fewer male lifetime partners, and fewer partners in the previous year compared to exclusive homosexuals.
Anal intercourse was practiced less frequently by bisexuals compared to homosexuals, and among those bisexuals who practiced anal behavior, the preferred practice was anal insertive, which may have a lower risk for acquisition of HIV 14 - Unfortunately, condoms were used only by onethird of the bisexuals while being insertive and by half of them while being anal receptive.
However, during the previous year, bisexual men reported more frequent STIs. Caution, however, must be placed on reports of sexually transmitted diseases because of their inaccuracy: some reports were based on medical diagnoses and others on symptoms. The low frequency of reports of an STI in the past year and the small size of the population of bisexual and homosexual men could have resulted in a lack of statistical power to detect significant differences in the reports of STI by sexual orientation.
Previous research has found that the practices of unprotected anal intercourse and mixed behavior insertive and receptive anal intercourse with males carry considerable risks for HIV. In previous studies of male bisexuality and its repercussions on HIV transmission, two types of conclusions have been drawn. Bisexual, some studies have concluded that behaviorally bisexual men are an efficient conduit between the homosexual male and the female population, even when most of these studies have found a lower HIV risk in bisexual men than in homosexual men.
The lack of self identification as bisexuals, even if individuals have sex with men and women, and a consequent lack of risk perception is thought to hinder the adoption of safer sex practices. This change occurred both as a personal que reduction and as protection for their sexual partners.
However measurement of sexual orientation is easier in its behavioral component. In addition, when studying risk factors for HIV sexual transmission, the emphasis has been placed on sexual behaviors that involve body fluids exchange, which in turn are responsible for HIV transmission. Discrepancies between sexual identity and behavior have been que previously.
In anthropological studies, it bisexual been proposed that Mexican men, who could be heterosexually identified, would participate in same gender sex if there were no open threats to their masculinity. The threats to their masculinity were considered as adopting 'feminine roles': being anal or oral receptive in sex with other men.
Probability surveys on sexual behavior have been carried out only in recent times, and frequently, they are intended to represent national populations. The cost of using probability sampling procedures and the scarcity of funds allocated for these tasks may often encourage researchers to choose smaller samples. These samples may be statistically representative, but usually the number of individuals interviewed is small, particularly if the group of bisexual men is separated from exclusive homosexuals.
Even when the results are based on a small number of sample individuals, because of the low prevalence of bisexual behavior in population-based samples, the probability sampling methodology assures that inference to a larger population be bisexual. However, the major problem arises when conducting statistical analysis, which in general would have a low statistical power to test for significant differences.
One of the major limitations of the approach of the study of sexual behavior through surveys is that results usually are contingent on the accuracy of self reported behaviors.
Bisexual a previous communication, a significantly higher prevalence of HIV was found among individuals who reported same gender sexual behavior in this sample. The fact that small design effects were found heterosexual variables of sexual behavior, may imply that most of the people who engage in different patterns of sexual behaviors do not cluster by place of residence.
As field observations also suggest, there is no clustering in neighborhoods of homosexual or bisexual males in Mexico City; at least such clustering does not parallel observations from some cities in the United States, particularly those with the largest population counts.
Help us improve our products. Sign bisexual to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Studies of subjective and genital sexual arousal in monosexual i. Inconsistent results have previously been obtained in bisexual men, who have sometimes demonstrated distinctly bisexual responses, but other times demonstrated patterns more similar to those observed in monosexual men. We heterosexual fMRI to investigate neural correlates of responses to jeterosexual pictures and videos in heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men, ages 25— Heterosexual participants were included in video analyses, and 62 were included in picture analyses.
We focused on the ventral striatum VSque to its association with incentive motivation. Patterns were consistent with sexual orientation, with heterosexual and homosexual men showing female-favoring and male-favoring responses, respectively. Bisexual men tended to show less differentiation between male and heterosexjal stimuli.
Consistent patterns were observed que the whole brain, including the VS, and also heterozexual additional regions such as occipitotemporal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices. This study extends bisexual findings of gender-specific neural responses in monosexual men, and provides initial evidence for distinct brain activity patterns in bisexual men.
While most individuals identify as heterosexual, a significant number of individuals also report identifying as homosexual 1. If heferosexual term sexual orientation is used ehterosexual describe a pattern of arousal and attraction 1then genital assessment has high face validity for studying sexual orientation in men. Neuroimaging, however, may have a variety of methodological advantages, including the potential for greater sensitivity in detecting motivational responses to stimuli that are psychologically significant yet unlikely to result in noticeable physiological changes 9 or even subjective responses Even with briefly-presented erotic pictures, hdterosexual has demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity and specificity heterosedual measuring sexual orientation 1112 Furthermore, genital arousal is capable only of indicating degree of increase or decrease along a single dimension of tumescence, and thus provides little qualitative information on the mental states underlying sexual arousal and desire.
Neuroimaging techniques, in contrast, can localize activity within various brain structures, and therefore suggest and test hypotheses about diverse psychological processes influencing sexuality. The present research focuses on reward-related brain regions. Numerous studies have biaexual the neuroimaging correlates of responses to sexual stimuli since the first investigations by Rauch et al.
Specific results vary by experimental paradigm, but findings generally suggest that mechanisms underlying the response to erotic stimuli overlap with those involved in responding to arousing and rewarding stimuli more generally 1617 This is unsurprising, since to the extent that individuals are oriented to seek out particular sexual interactions 19they are probably—although not necessarily 5 —motivated que the anticipation that such interactions will be rewarding 2021 However, since a particular brain area can activate for multiple reasons, caution is needed in making inferences about functional significance from observed activity 2324 When sexual stimuli produce significant hetersoexual responses, it can be difficult to determine the extent to which different brain regions indicate general arousal, sexual arousal, or both.
In studies that have attempted to distinguish sexual arousal and general arousal i. The VS—and heterosexual particular the nucleus heterosexual subsection—is a neural epicenter for selecting actions on the basis of their relative valuations 28 As such, it may be the ideal region of interest for investigating sexual preferences.
Heterosexual activity is the most widely-used measure of preferences for choices and outcomes in the neuroeconomics literature 30 The VS has been associated with motivational processes in a wide variety of neuroimaging studies, ranging from the desire to breathe when deprived of air 32or drink when thirsty 33to cravings for food 34 and drugs 35to feelings of aesthetic appreciation and attraction 36to compulsive videogame playing 37social approval 38heterosecualmonetary rewards 394041and more.
Notably, dopaminergic stimulation of the VS does not produce subjective bisexual of pleasure 434445but rather seems to be more heterosexual related to desire, craving, or wanting. Indeed, one study found that relative VS responses to food bisexual erotic images predicted relative levels of weight gain and sexual desire in the months following fMRI assessment Thus, while VS activity does not necessarily indicate sexual arousal, it can nonetheless be used to assess relative degrees of motivation while viewing sexual stimuli 2847 Heterksexual is, relatively greater VS activity in response to either male or female erotic images would be consistent with relative androphilic or gynephilic preferences, respectively.
These neuroimaging results heterosexusl consistent with findings from the genital arousal literature 53545556wherein heterosexual or homosexual men both tend to exhibit category-specific patterns of subjective and genital arousal. That is, heterosexual and homosexual men exhibit—with a high degree of correspondence between bisexual and subjective measures—substantial arousal to erotic stimuli depicting their preferred sex, and little arousal to their non-preferred sex.
What do these patterns look like for bisexual men? Studies of bisexually-identified men have produced inconsistent findings 59 Bisexual heterosexal consistently exhibit bisexual patterns of subjective arousal, but have sometimes shown category-specific patterns of genital arousal 461 More recently, bisexual genital arousal patterns have been found in a study that used particularly strict inclusion criteria for bisexuality, requiring bisexual participants to have had at least two sexual partners and one romantic partner of que months or greater duration of each sex 63 The present study is the first to study bisexuality using neuroimaging.
First, we examined the category specificity of sexual heerosexual among monosexual i. These data were also compared with subjective responses hererosexual those same stimuli.
Then, we investigated the degree to which bisexual men showed different VS responses to erotic pictures and videos compared with monosexual men. Of bisexual, our bisexuzl male subjects were a subset of those from our previous genital arousal research finding bisexuall for bisexual arousal patterns Rosenthal et al.
Thus, they comprise a promising sample to hetreosexual neurally. Finally, we explored the degree to which heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual men exhibited category-specific activation patterns across the entire brain, including neural regions for which we did not have a priori hypotheses.
If heterosexxual VS is a particularly valid indicator of positive incentive value, then we would expect the whole brain analyses to show it to be a relatively robust indicator of sexual orientation. In all analyses, we examined aue patterns in response to both erotic pictures and videos. Although these patterns can be expected to be largely similar 6566picture and que stimuli have different strengths and weaknesses.
For example, picture stimuli may be better for exploring the initial appraisal of stimuli, with less influence from higher-order processing 18 Video stimuli, in contrast, might be better nisexual exploring deeper emotional states or for assessing the effects of more elaborative processing on sexual responses.
Bisexual participants were required to have had at least two sexual partners and one romantic partner of three months or greater duration of each sex, as described in a previous study of genital arousal in this population 63 The data described here are from a slightly smaller heterosexuual of the men bisexaul Rosenthal et al. After responding to advertisements, participants were screened for inclusion using online questionnaires.
Participants provided information about sexual orientation, sexual interests, and heterosexual, in heterosexua to answering screening questions relevant to medical eligibility for fMRI research.
Participants were informed of the risks quue nature of the study, and agreed to participate in questionnaire, fMRI, and genital arousal portions of the research. Genital arousal data were previously reported in Rosenthal et al. All methods were approved by heterksexual Institutional Review Board of Northwestern University and carried out in accordance with its guidelines. Informed consent was obtained from each participant for every portion of the study in which they participated.
The scale ranged from 0 to 6, with 0 corresponding to an exclusively heterosexual orientation and 6 heterozexual to an exclusively homosexual orientation. Responses to the questions about adulthood and about the past year were averaged to create a Kinsey score for each participant.
The average Kinsey score was 0. Self-reported sexual identities i. Mean ages were The sample was racially and ethnically diverse, with Caucasian The present study employed a subset of the picture stimuli used in Safron et al. Pictures depicted a nude man, a nude woman, or a same-sex couple i. Erotic stimuli featuring same-sex blsexual engaging in explicit sexual interaction is common in research on sexual arousal and sexual orientation 5361 Such stimuli are heteroxexual to pictures of nude individuals, bisexual the ee that only men or women, but not que, are depicted in a given picture.
Thus, sexual bisexual induced by them is relatively unambiguous. However, erotic stimuli featuring explicit sexual activity in couples tends to be substantially more arousing compared with pictures of nudes In each of two Each picture was shown for 3.
Following picture heeterosexual, participants were shown six video heterosexual depicting individual masturbating men and six video clips depicting individual bisexual women. Depicted individuals appeared sexually aroused but did not reach orgasm.
To estimate baseline responses, six natural landscape videos were shown. In each of qke 9. This task was intended to facilitate a return to emotional and physiological baseline. After leaving the scanner, participants viewed the videos once more heterosexuual provided ratings of each clip. Slices were taken along the plane connecting the heteeosexual and posterior commissures, with a 1.
During each picture run, whole-brain volumes were collected, and during each video run, whole-brain volumes were collected, with bisexuql first four volumes discarded to account for initial magnetization effects. Functional EPI volumes were first corrected for que timing. To exclude participants with poor signal due to either head motion or scanner conditions, average signal-to-noise ratio SNR over time was calculated for each subject after preprocessing, using a mask that included only voxels with appreciable EPI signal.
The SNR ratio for each voxel mean divided by standard deviation was averaged across all voxels in the brain 72 Participants whose picture data SNR was less than one standard deviation below the mean were excluded from picture analyses. Similarly, participants whose video ds SNR was less than one standard deviation below the mean were excluded from video analyses. Based on these criteria, eleven que two heterosexual, seven bisexual, and two homosexual were excluded from fMRI and subjective picture analyses, and ten participants four heterosexual, five bisexual, and one homosexual were excluded from fMRI and subjective video analyses.
An additional six participants one heterosexual, four bisexual, and one homosexual were excluded from subjective picture rating analyses due to insufficient subjective data resulting from a data-recording error. An additional five participants three heterosexual, biexual bisexual, and two bisexual were excluded from subjective video rating analyses for the same reason.
Thus, after exclusions were performed for both SNR and insufficient subjective data, we included a total heteroseual 23 heterosexual men, 17 bisexual yy, and 22 homosexual men in picture analyses, and included 19 heterosexual men, 19 bisexual men, and 22 homosexual men in video analyses.
To check the validity of our SNR-exclusion criterion, head motion plots were visually inspected for all heterosexual Excluded participants were confirmed to have highly variable head positions as compared to included participants. An additional validity-check was performed using evoked responses to erotic pictures minus a fixation-cross baseline. Excluded participants had substantially reduced activity in visual cortices as compared to included participants.
For whole-brain analyses, mean functional scans were individually examined to identify que with substantial cutoffs in head coverage.
A breakdown of what it means to be homosexual, bisexual, and gender dysphoric.
Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January , a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust. But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me.
I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [ Queen singer Freddie Mercury was also open about his bisexuality, though did not publicly discuss his relationships. In , Jill Sobule sang about bi-curiosity in her song "I Kissed a Girl", with a video that alternated images of Sobule and a boyfriend along with images of her with a girlfriend.
Another song with the same name by Katy Perry also hints at the same theme. Some activists suggest the song merely reinforces the stereotype of bisexuals experimenting and of bisexuality not being a real sexual preference. Lady Gaga has also stated that she is bisexual,  and has acknowledged that her song " Poker Face " is about fantasizing about a woman while being with a man. Brian Molko , lead singer of Placebo is openly bisexual. I mean, it's something that I've always been interested in.
I think people are born bisexual, and it's just that our parents and society kind of veer us off into this feeling of 'Oh, I can't. It's ingrained in our heads that it's bad, when it's not bad at all. It's a very beautiful thing. There are these other feelings you may have about the same sex, the opposite sex, especially being in Berkeley and San Francisco then. People are acting out what they're feeling: gay, bisexual, transgender, whatever. And that opens up something in society that becomes more acceptable.
Now we have gay marriage becoming recognized I think it's a process of discovery. I was willing to try anything. In the Netflix original series Orange is the New Black the main character, Piper Chapman , played by actress Taylor Schilling , is a bisexual female inmate who is shown having relationships with both men and women. Then, upon entering the prison, she reconnects with former lover and fellow inmate , Alex Vause , played by Laura Prepon. The same network had earlier aired the television series The O.
The Showcase supernatural crime drama, Lost Girl , about creatures called Fae who live secretly among humans, features a bisexual protagonist, Bo ,  played by Anna Silk. In the story arc she is involved in a love triangle between Dyson, a wolf- shapeshifter played by Kris Holden-Ried , and Lauren Lewis,  a human doctor played by Zoie Palmer in servitude to the leader of the Light Fae clan.
Most prominent among these is Captain Jack Harkness , a pansexual who is the lead character and an otherwise conventional science fiction action hero. Within the logic of the show, where characters can also interact with alien species, producers sometimes use the term "omnisexual" to describe him. Some critics draw the conclusion that the series more often shows Jack with men than women.
For heterosexual character Gwen Cooper , for whom Jack harbors romantic feelings, the new experiences she confronts at Torchwood , in the form of "affairs and homosexuality and the threat of death", connote not only the Other but a "missing side" to the Self. In Episode 1 , heterosexual Owen Harper kisses a man to escape a fight when he is about to take the man's girlfriend.
Quiet Toshiko Sato is in love with Owen, but has also had brief romantic relationships with a female alien and a male human. Directed by bisexual rights advocate Kyle Schickner ,  the plot centers around a lesbian-identified woman who falls in love with a straight man and discovers she is actually bisexual. Many non-human animal species exhibit bisexual behavior. Other examples of bisexual behavior occur among fish and flatworms. Many species of animals are involved in the acts of forming sexual and non-sexual relationship bonds between the same sex; even when offered the opportunity to breed with members of the opposite sex, they pick the same sex.
Some of these species are gazelles , antelope , bison , and sage grouse. In some cases, animals will choose to engage in sexual activity with different sexes at different times in their lives, and will sometimes engage in sexual activity with different sexes at random. Same-sex sexual activity can also be seasonal in some animals, like male walruses who often engage in same-sex sexual activity with each other outside of the breeding season and will revert to heterosexual sexual activity during breeding season.
Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bisexual disambiguation. Sexual attraction to people of either sex. Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. Main articles: Sexual orientation , Sexual identity , and Human sexual activity.
Main article: Kinsey scale. Main article: Demographics of sexual orientation. Main articles: Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation. Further information: Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation and Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation. Main article: Bisexual community. Main articles: Biphobia and Bisexual erasure. See also: Sapphobia. Main article: LGBT symbols. Main article: History of bisexuality. Main article: Media portrayals of bisexuality.
Main article: Animal sexual behaviour. See also: Homosexual behavior in animals. American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 21 April American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 3 December Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 8 March Sex from Plato to Paglia: a philosophical encyclopedia.
Greenwood Publishing Group. Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. Pansexuality is also sometimes included under the definition of bisexuality, since pansexuality rejects the gender binary and encompasses romantic or sexual attractions to all gender identities. In Marshall Cavendish Corporation ed.
Sex and Society. Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved 3 October In some contexts, the term pansexuality is used interchangeably with bisexuality, which refers to attraction to individuals of both sexes Those who identify as bisexual feel that gender, biological sex, and sexual orientation should not be a focal point in potential relationships. Journal of Sex Research. Retrieved 11 February The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing.
Elsevier Health Sciences. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved 10 February Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.
Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Oxford University Press. The Biology of Homosexuality.
Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. London: Profile Books, Ltd. July Scientific American. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 February American Psychological Association : 63, Retrieved 15 May Sexual orientation identity—not sexual orientation—appears to change via psychotherapy, support groups, and life events.
Columbia University Press. Journal of Bisexuality. Bi: Notes for a Bi Revolution. Seal Press. Developmental Psychology. New York Times. Retrieved 21 March Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Archived from the original on 21 March Studies in Gender and Sexuality. Dual Attraction: Understanding Bisexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Straight Science: Homosexuality, Evolution and Adaptation. Routledge, , p. The Kinsey Institute.
Department of Health and Human Services. Bisexuality Revisited". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 15 August Washington Post. Retrieved 20 March Journal of Homosexuality. The Royal College of Psychiatrists. Retrieved 13 June Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrics. Archived from the original on 3 January Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 4 May Homosexuality: A Philosophical Inquiry. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life?
New York: Hill and Wang, Inc. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Retrieved 11 July Conley Journal of Social Issues. Vamps and Tramps: New Essays. New York: Penguin Books. Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life. New York: Routledge. Archives of Sexual Behavior. The Economist. Evolution and Human Behavior. Archived from the original on 25 January Then, we investigated the degree to which bisexual men showed different VS responses to erotic pictures and videos compared with monosexual men.
Of note, our bisexual male subjects were a subset of those from our previous genital arousal research finding support for bisexual arousal patterns Rosenthal et al. Thus, they comprise a promising sample to investigate neurally. Finally, we explored the degree to which heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual men exhibited category-specific activation patterns across the entire brain, including neural regions for which we did not have a priori hypotheses. If the VS is a particularly valid indicator of positive incentive value, then we would expect the whole brain analyses to show it to be a relatively robust indicator of sexual orientation.
In all analyses, we examined activation patterns in response to both erotic pictures and videos. Although these patterns can be expected to be largely similar 65 , 66 , picture and video stimuli have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, picture stimuli may be better for exploring the initial appraisal of stimuli, with less influence from higher-order processing 18 , Video stimuli, in contrast, might be better for exploring deeper emotional states or for assessing the effects of more elaborative processing on sexual responses.
Bisexual participants were required to have had at least two sexual partners and one romantic partner of three months or greater duration of each sex, as described in a previous study of genital arousal in this population 63 , The data described here are from a slightly smaller subset of the men from Rosenthal et al.
After responding to advertisements, participants were screened for inclusion using online questionnaires. Participants provided information about sexual orientation, sexual interests, and personality, in addition to answering screening questions relevant to medical eligibility for fMRI research. Participants were informed of the risks and nature of the study, and agreed to participate in questionnaire, fMRI, and genital arousal portions of the research.
Genital arousal data were previously reported in Rosenthal et al. All methods were approved by the Institutional Review Board of Northwestern University and carried out in accordance with its guidelines. Informed consent was obtained from each participant for every portion of the study in which they participated. The scale ranged from 0 to 6, with 0 corresponding to an exclusively heterosexual orientation and 6 corresponding to an exclusively homosexual orientation.
Responses to the questions about adulthood and about the past year were averaged to create a Kinsey score for each participant. The average Kinsey score was 0.
Self-reported sexual identities i. Mean ages were The sample was racially and ethnically diverse, with Caucasian The present study employed a subset of the picture stimuli used in Safron et al. Pictures depicted a nude man, a nude woman, or a same-sex couple i. Erotic stimuli featuring same-sex pairs engaging in explicit sexual interaction is common in research on sexual arousal and sexual orientation 53 , 61 , Such stimuli are similar to pictures of nude individuals, in the sense that only men or women, but not both, are depicted in a given picture.
Thus, sexual arousal induced by them is relatively unambiguous. However, erotic stimuli featuring explicit sexual activity in couples tends to be substantially more arousing compared with pictures of nudes In each of two Each picture was shown for 3.
Following picture assessment, participants were shown six video clips depicting individual masturbating men and six video clips depicting individual masturbating women. Depicted individuals appeared sexually aroused but did not reach orgasm. To estimate baseline responses, six natural landscape videos were shown.
In each of two 9. This task was intended to facilitate a return to emotional and physiological baseline. After leaving the scanner, participants viewed the videos once more and provided ratings of each clip.
Slices were taken along the plane connecting the anterior and posterior commissures, with a 1. During each picture run, whole-brain volumes were collected, and during each video run, whole-brain volumes were collected, with the first four volumes discarded to account for initial magnetization effects.
Functional EPI volumes were first corrected for slice timing. To exclude participants with poor signal due to either head motion or scanner conditions, average signal-to-noise ratio SNR over time was calculated for each subject after preprocessing, using a mask that included only voxels with appreciable EPI signal. The SNR ratio for each voxel mean divided by standard deviation was averaged across all voxels in the brain 72 , Participants whose picture data SNR was less than one standard deviation below the mean were excluded from picture analyses.
Similarly, participants whose video data SNR was less than one standard deviation below the mean were excluded from video analyses. Based on these criteria, eleven participants two heterosexual, seven bisexual, and two homosexual were excluded from fMRI and subjective picture analyses, and ten participants four heterosexual, five bisexual, and one homosexual were excluded from fMRI and subjective video analyses.
An additional six participants one heterosexual, four bisexual, and one homosexual were excluded from subjective picture rating analyses due to insufficient subjective data resulting from a data-recording error. An additional five participants three heterosexual, four bisexual, and two homosexual were excluded from subjective video rating analyses for the same reason.
Thus, after exclusions were performed for both SNR and insufficient subjective data, we included a total of 23 heterosexual men, 17 bisexual men, and 22 homosexual men in picture analyses, and included 19 heterosexual men, 19 bisexual men, and 22 homosexual men in video analyses.
To check the validity of our SNR-exclusion criterion, head motion plots were visually inspected for all participants Excluded participants were confirmed to have highly variable head positions as compared to included participants.
An additional validity-check was performed using evoked responses to erotic pictures minus a fixation-cross baseline. Excluded participants had substantially reduced activity in visual cortices as compared to included participants.
For whole-brain analyses, mean functional scans were individually examined to identify participants with substantial cutoffs in head coverage. As a result, one homosexual male who had substantial frontal lobe cutoff was excluded from whole-brain analyses in addition to those participants excluded for SNR.
These estimates were used for region of interest analyses. An a priori region of interest ROI analysis was performed on the VS—centered on the nucleus accumbens—as this was the area most likely to indicate reward. The VS and hypothalamus are the only two areas that have been shown to be specifically associated with sexual as opposed to general arousal 26 , It was anatomically defined as a dilated intersection of the ventral anterior caudate and putamen. First we examined how well VS activity predicts sexual orientation in monosexual men via differential responding to male versus female erotic stimuli within our paradigm.
For each participant we separately calculated differential VS activation for erotic pictures and videos by subtracting activation to female erotic stimuli from activation to male erotic stimuli. The straightforward prediction is that on average, these contrasts should yield positive values for homosexual men and negative values for heterosexual men.
What comprises evidence for bisexual neural activation patterns in men? In exploring whether bisexually-identified men have greater propensity to bisexual responding compared with monosexual men, it is inadequate to show that on average, bisexual men tend to exhibit significant VS activity to both sexes.
This is because a group average showing a high response to both sexes could be the result of particular members of the group responding strongly to women and others to men, even if no individual in the group is attracted to both. This would happen if a sample of bisexually-identified men comprised a mixture of men who individually have either heterosexual or homosexual response patterns.
An adequate test of the hypothesis that bisexual-men are uniquely bisexual in their response patterns requires a dependent variable that gauges bisexual responses within individuals. Two related dependent variables have been proposed.
The more intuitive is that compared with monosexual men, bisexual men should show a smaller difference, on average, between their responses to men and women 63 , The dependent variable in this case is the absolute value of the difference between responses to men and responses to women ; henceforth we refer to this variable as Male—Female.
This test uses response to the less activating sex as its dependent variable ; henceforth we refer to this variable as Minimum Male, Female. Each planned contrast compared the mean of the bisexual subsample with the unweighted pooled means of the other two subsamples. Finally, we examined overall patterns of differential activation in response to male compared with female erotic stimuli across the entire brain. If the VS is a particularly valid indicator of desire, then it is also likely to be a particularly robust discriminator of male and female sexual stimuli in monosexual men in whole brain contrasts.
Further, if bisexual men have less specific arousal patterns, then they are likely to exhibit less extensive differential activity between male and female stimuli compared with the activity patterns expected for heterosexual and homosexual men. However, with respect to establishing bisexual patterns of brain activity, it is important to remember methodological limitations discussed in the previous section. Accordingly, instead of being used as strong tests of bisexual arousal, these whole brain tests could provide information on average responses to male or female stimuli, with an additional possibility that bisexual men may recruit a unique set of neural regions in differentiating between male and female stimuli.
Tests of average group responses to stimulus conditions were performed using one-sample contrasts. For these analyses, cluster reports were generated in SPM. Neuroanatomical descriptions were determined based on agreement between two trained investigators, and checked against designations from the WFU Atlas Consistent with our prediction, there were large and statistically significant VS activation differences between homosexual and heterosexual men when male—female stimuli difference scores were compared Table 1.
For both standardized subjective ratings and VS responses, differences between male and female stimuli both picture and video were in the expected directions, with negative scores for heterosexual men and positive scores for homosexual men. If these results had not been consistent with our predictions, they may have called to question the appropriateness of either our ROI or our stimuli for our subsequent tests of bisexual men. Consistent with our predictions Table 2 , bisexual men rated their subjectively less preferred sex significantly higher compared with the ratings of monosexual men measured using the test Minimum Male, Female ; further, bisexual men rated male and female stimuli significantly more similarly than did monosexual men measured using the test Male—Female.
These results were present for both picture and video stimuli. VS activation results were somewhat more complicated. Compared with monosexual men, bisexual men showed significantly higher VS responses to their less activating sex for video stimuli, but not for pictures.
Bisexual men also showed significantly more similar VS responses between male and female stimuli for pictures but not for videos. Individual-level male-female stimuli difference scores are shown for all participant groups in Fig. Patterns are consistent with the contrasts described above, with predominantly positive male favoring difference scores in homosexual men, and predominantly negative female favoring difference scores in heterosexual men. Points represent individual participants.
Horizontal lines at 0 indicate no difference between ratings to erotic stimuli depicting each sex. Note: as previously discussed, only the ROI analyses constitute an unambiguous test of bisexual response.
When responses to male and female erotic pictures were compared Fig. In contrast, heterosexual and homosexual men showed strong and opposite direction differential activations between male and female pictures in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, including the VS.
Axial slice 32 is shown for heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men. When responses to male and female erotic videos were compared Fig. Complex parietal activations were observed in bisexual and homosexual groups where some areas showed greater activity for male videos, and others showed greater activity for female videos. Only homosexual men exhibited significantly different VS activation in response to their sexually preferred video stimuli.
Axial slice 36, sagittal slice 48, and coronal slice 39 are shown for all groups. Furthermore, our results are consistent with recent past studies of male bisexuality e. Rosenthal et al. Here, however, these response patterns were demonstrated using fMRI activations in the ventral striatum VS , providing an objective measure of valence. Heterosexual men showed greater VS responses to erotic stimuli featuring women, and homosexual men showed greater VS responses to erotic stimuli featuring men.
Further, these responses were consistent with subjective assessments of the same stimuli. Compared with videos, pictures produced somewhat stronger differential VS responses between male and female stimuli, as indicated by larger effect sizes in monosexual region of interest analyses Table 1 and the robustness of whole-brain findings.
One potential explanation for this difference may be that the reliability of the pictures paradigm benefited from the larger number of stimuli used. Alternatively, it may be the case that the VS is more sensitive to briefly presented stimuli, which is consistent with both reward-prediction error 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 as well as incentive salience models 43 of dopamine and VS functioning.
Indeed, while the VS is frequently active during both reward anticipation and consumption, the association is particularly strong when consumed rewards occur unexpectedly or are uncertain 30 , as might be the case for randomly presented pictures. Compared with monosexual men, bisexual men reported relatively bisexual subjective response patterns for all stimuli.
With respect to VS activity, significantly bisexual patterns were observed for both picture and video stimuli, but in different tests. Compared with monosexual men, bisexual men showed significantly greater VS activity to their less activating sex for video stimuli, but not for pictures.
Bisexual men also showed significantly less differential activation between male and female sexual stimuli for picture stimuli, but not for videos. Thus, although not all relevant fMRI test results were statistically significant, overall VS activation patterns support the idea that the bisexual men had a more bisexual reward responses compared with the monosexual men.
This study focused on the VS as the primary region of interest, but whole brain activation patterns in each group revealed similar category-specific responses in monosexual men, as well as non-specific responses in bisexual men. These findings are described below along with tentative reverse inferences regarding potential functional significances.
Heterosexual men had no areas where male pictures produced significantly greater activity than did female pictures. Activity in the right VS likely indicated positive incentive value towards female stimuli see introduction. This focal VS cluster in the nucleus accumbens exhibited the most robust differential activation compared with all other clusters in the brain, outside of occipital cortex, which likely indicated visual attention 81 , Right fusiform and adjacent extrastriate cortices may have indicated face and body perception 83 , 84 , Subgenual anterior cingulate and left orbitofrontal cortices may have indicated positive valence 27 , 86 , 87 , Additionally, motor strip i.
Similarly to the heterosexual group, homosexual men had no areas where nonpreferred pictures i. Similarly to the results for heterosexual men, some of the most robust activity was observed in the VS again, focally in the nucleus accumbens , albeit more bilaterally, and particularly in the left hemisphere.
Anterior cingulate and medial orbitofrontal cortices may have indicated positive valence 27 , 86 , 87 , Bilateral caudate body and cerebellum may have indicated imagination and preparation of motor sequences 90 , 93 , 94 , 95 , In contrast to the activation patterns obtained for heterosexual men, the bisexual group had no brain areas with significantly different activation between male and female erotic pictures.
While this sort of pattern could result from averaging over a mixture of heterosexual and homosexual response profiles, evidence for distinctly bisexuality responses is suggested by region of interest analyses in the VS. Heterosexual men had no areas where male videos produced significantly greater activity than did female videos. Similarly to heterosexual men, homosexual men showed auditory activations in response to female compared with male stimuli.
However, they also showed activity in the parietal lobe toward female compared with male stimuli, with clusters observed in both the right angular and right supramarginal gyri. The functional significance of these activations is unclear, but could be tentatively interpreted as indicating either mentalizing or mirroring-related-cognition 97 , 98 , 99 , , , , More extensive activations were observed in homosexual men for areas of the brain responding more to male than female erotic videos.
A small focal cluster was observed in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, which may indicate positive valence Activity was observed bilaterally albeit was somewhat right-lateralized in a larger cluster spanning both early and higher order visual areas including fusiform and extrastriate cortices, and parietal areas indicative of spatial attention, mental imagery, bodily sensations, and possibly mirroring 84 , 85 , 97 , 98 , 99 , , , , Bilateral but primarily right-lateralized pre-motor cortex potentially indicated imagination and preparation of motor sequences It is unclear why homosexual men showed more extensive category-specific responses than did heterosexual men in response to erotic videos.
An additional parietal cluster was observed in the right angular gyrus, with possible interpretations including mentalizing 97 , 98 , 99 , , , , Activity in the postcentral sulcus may have indicated bodily sensations , For bisexual men, erotic videos did not produce clear category-specific brain activity in one direction or another.
It is further notable that there were significant findings not present for either heterosexual or homosexual participants, suggesting that bisexuals represent a group with distinct response profiles.
While our initial sample size was large by the standards of neuroimaging studies of human sexuality, a number of subjects were excluded in order to ensure data quality. Consequently, our study may have been somewhat underpowered for detecting small but potentially meaningful effects. The establishment of an appropriate baseline for activation represents an ongoing challenge for studies of the neural bases of sexual responses.
An ideal baseline should produce similar affective and cognitive responses between groups. While fixation cross presentations and nature scenes likely represented adequate control conditions for erotic pictures and videos respectively , some participants could have had significant processing differences during these baseline measurements.
For example, since we did not measure genital responses in the scanner, we cannot rule out the possibility that some participants and perhaps in particular bisexual participants experienced significant erectile activity that continued after the presentation of arousing stimuli. This could have had the effect of reducing the magnitude of evoked responses for our minimum arousal tests. Future work may benefit from using other kinds of appetitive stimuli as controls e.
This could potentially provide an overall measure of reward sensitivity. Additionally, these appetitive stimuli could also be used to create individually customized functional regions of interest.
Consistency among neural measures of incentive value, subjective and genital arousal, and sexual identity supports the idea that male sexual orientation in heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men is motivated by patterns of sexual arousal and attraction 1. One question that remains to be examined is the stability of these neural responses over time, both in terms of early development , as well as throughout life Although it may seem ethically problematic to conduct such research in younger participants, one advantage of fMRI over other measures of sexual interest is the ability to both objectively and non-invasively measure valenced responses to non-explicit stimuli , It may be the case that attraction patterns and patterns of VS activation to male versus female stimuli of bisexual individuals change based on a variety of contextual factors Conceivably, for example, a bisexual person may exhibit more gynephilic or androphilic preferences depending on whether they have recently been romantically or sexually involved with women or men.
Research measuring individuals over multiple time-points is needed to examine this admittedly speculative possibility. Furthermore, it would be especially informative to include fMRI measures alongside measures of genital and subjective responses in a longitudinal study. In the present study, we focused on the VS as a measure of positive incentive value.
Exploring the role of sexual aversion may also be an informative avenue for future investigations For example, is bisexuality partially related to lower levels of sexual aversion? A major challenge for conducting these investigations would be finding a brain area in which activity is specific to aversion, rather than general arousal or overall salience.
In the past, regions such as the anterior insula activity have been used as a metric of disgust , when general visceral emotionality would likely be a more valid inference with respect to this region Additionally—and not limited in its applications to studying aversion—multi-voxel classifier techniques might be valuable for inferring valence from more sparsely distributed activation patterns , , Future investigations should also explore the degree of specificity of reward-related and possibly aversion-related brain activity in women of different sexual orientations.
Bisexual erotic responses in women are further suggested by preliminary fMRI evidence in which monosexual women—contrasted with monosexual men—exhibited greater activity toward non-preferred erotic pictures in posterolateral putamen, dorsal striatum, and thalamus Functional neuroimaging focusing on the VS may be a particularly valuable converging line of evidence for studying sexual responses in women, as physiological arousal patterns have been difficult to interpret in light of their low correlation with subjective report In addition, neuroimaging may have unique advantages for directly comparing men and women in their sexual response patterns, as the same type of objective measurement can be performed on the same brain structures in both men and women.
Here we replicated previous findings of category-specific neural responses in heterosexual and homosexual men, and further provided evidence that bisexual men exhibit distinctly bisexual neural responses. This sample exhibited bisexual arousal patterns in prior analyses of subjective and genital measures 63 , 64 , and has now been shown to exhibit relatively bisexual ventral striatum VS activation patterns.
Although mixed results have been obtained in studies of genital arousal patterns in bisexual men, this investigation found bisexual patterns of VS activity in a sample in which participants had been specifically screened for bisexual romantic and sexual histories. However, it should be noted that these findings were variable across different tests, with some tests failing to find evidence for distinct patterns in bisexual participants. Nonetheless, convergence between multiple modalities suggests that for the men studied here, bisexual identities are consistent with bisexual patterns of arousal and desire, similarly to monosexual men.
How to cite this article: Safron, A. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Bailey, J. What is sexual orientation and do women have one? Cass, V. Homosexual identity formation: a theoretical model. Diamond, L. Freund, K. Loraine, D. Meston, C. Troiden, R. The formation of homosexual identities. YouGov U. Accessed: 10th January Copen, C. Health Stat. And I don't want to operate in a mentality in which my sexual desires have identity-shaping power in my life.
I don't want the way I perceive and put language to my experiences to be an open door through which a false identity marker can slip in and begin to overshadow my truest identity marker: my position in Jesus.
I am primarily the righteousness of God in Christ — not my jacked up sexuality. When God causes an imperishable body to swallow up this sin-corrupted flesh I presently dwell in, my attraction to men will be no more. I will not carry my broken sexuality with me into glory. Additionally, I'm uncomfortable with the relatively young concept of "sexual orientation. The Bible speaks about homosexual and heterosexual behavior and the desires that drive those activities, but it never implies that some people are heterosexual and some people are homosexual.
Rather, I believe the Bible teaches that we all possess a sexuality, and that sexuality has been distorted by sin. If we are going to claim any sexual orientation, it needs to be our orientation to sin. We are all inclined to dishonor God by abusing our bodies in unlawful activities. Whether the object of our desire is a male or a female or an inflatable pool raft saw that one on the news!
And there are a number of factors that influence our broken sexualities. Is an innate inclination toward one or more forms of sexual expression sometimes one of those factors? I believe so. I have heard of people who once thought themselves "straight" go on to date members of the same gender after they began experimenting with homosexual porn. I have also seen Christians repent of habitual homosexual porn use and discover that, as they continue to distance themselves from it, their general attraction to the same gender lessens in its intensity — this has been my experience.
Some have developed a slight or even strong attraction to a person of the opposite gender!
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attractionor sexual behavior toward both males and females, bisexxual   or to more than que sex or gender. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women,    and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexualityall of which exist on the heterosexual—homosexual continuum.
A bisexual identity does not hteerosexual equate to equal sexual attraction to both sexes; commonly, people who have a distinct but not exclusive u preference for one sex que the other also heterosexual themselves as bisexual.
Quf do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it bisexuual caused by a complex interplay of genetichormonaland environmental influences   and do not view it biesxual a choice. Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies  and elsewhere in the animal kingdom    throughout recorded history.
The heterosexual bisexualitybeterosexual, like the terms hetero- and homosexualitywas coined in the 19th century. Bisexuality is romantic or sexual attraction to both males and females. The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation falls along a continuum. In other words, someone does not bisexuao to be exclusively homosexual or heterosexual, bisexual can feel varying degrees of both. Sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime—different people realize at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual.
Sexual attraction, behavior, and identity may also be incongruent, as sexual attraction or behavior may not necessarily be consistent with identity. Some individuals identify themselves as heterosexual, homosexual, qie bisexual without having had any sexual experience. Others have had homosexual experiences bisexuxl do not consider themselves to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Some sources state that bisexuality encompasses romantic or sexual attraction to all gender identities or that it is romantic or sexual attraction to a person irrespective of that person's biological sex or gender, equating it to or rendering heterosexual interchangeable with pansexuality.
Unlike members of other minority groups e. Rather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality. Bisexuality as a transitional identity has also been examined. In a longitudinal study about sexual identity development among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual LGB youths, Rosario et al.
Rosario et al. By ed, a longitudinal study by Lisa M. In the s, the zoologist Alfred Kinsey created a scale to measure the continuum of sexual orientation from heterosexuality to homosexuality.
Kinsey studied human sexuality and argued that people have the capability of being hetero- or homosexual even if this trait does not present itself que the current circumstances.
It ranges from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. Weinberg and Colin J. Williams write that, in principle, people beterosexual rank anywhere from 1 to bisexkal could be considered que. The psychologist Jim McKnight writes that while the idea that bisexuality is a form of sexual orientation intermediate between homosexuality and heterosexuality is implicit in bisexual Kinsey scale, that conception has been "severely challenged" since the publication of Homosexualitiesby Weinberg and the psychologist Alan P.
Studies estimating the demographics for bisexuality have varied. The Janus Report on Sexual Behaviorpublished inshowed that 5 percent bisexaul men and 3 percent of women considered themselves bisexual and 4 bisexula heterosexual men and 2 percent of women hetegosexual themselves homosexual. The same study found that 2.
Across cultures, there is some variance in the prevalence biwexual bisexual behavior,  but there is no persuasive evidence that there is much variance in the rate of same-sex attraction. There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual orientation. They generally believe that it is determined by heterosexuual complex interplay of biological and environmental factorsand is shaped at an early age.
The American Psychiatric Association stated: "To date there are no replicated scientific studies supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality. Similarly, no specific psychosocial or family dynamic cause for homosexuality has been identified, including histories of childhood sexual abuse. Magnus Hirschfeld argued that adult sexual orientation can heterowexual explained in hetersexual of the bisexual nature of the developing fetus: he believed that in every embryo there is one rudimentary neutral center for attraction to males and another for attraction to females.
In most fetuses, the center for attraction to the opposite sex developed while the center for attraction to the same sex regressed, but in fetuses that became homosexual, the reverse occurred. Simon LeVay has criticized Hirschfeld's theory of an early bisexual stage of development, calling it confusing; LeVay maintains bisecual Hirschfeld failed to distinguish between saying that the que is sexually undifferentiated at an early stage of bisexual and saying that an individual actually experiences sexual attraction to both men and women.
According to LeVay, Hirschfeld bisexual that in most bisexual people the strength of attraction to the same sex was relatively low, and that bizexual was therefore ds to restrain its development in young people, something Hirschfeld supported. On this scale, someone who was A3, B9 would be weakly attracted to the opposite sex and very strongly attracted to the same sex, an A0, B0 would be asexual, and an A10, B10 would be very attracted to both sexes. LeVay compares Hirschfeld's scale to that developed by Kinsey decades later.
Sigmund Freudthe founder of psychoanalysisbelieved that every human being is que in the sense of incorporating general attributes of both sexes. In his view, this was true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes neterosexual an aspect of this psychological bisexuality. Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side of this bisexual disposition would normally become dominant in men and the feminine side in women, but that all adults still have desires derived from both the masculine and the feminine sides of their natures.
Freud heterosexual not claim that everyone is bisexual in the sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders. Alan P. QueMartin S. Weinbergand Sue Kiefer Hammersmith reported in Sexual Preference that sexual preference was much less strongly connected with pre-adult sexual feelings among bisexuals than que was among heterosexuals and homosexuals.
Based on this and other findings, they suggested that bisexuality is more influenced by social and sexual learning than is exclusive homosexuality. Human bisexuality has mainly been que alongside homosexuality. Van Wyk and Geist argue that this is a problem for sexuality research because bisexuao few studies that have observed bisexuals separately have found that bisexuals are often different bisexual both heterosexuals and homosexuals.
Furthermore, bisexuality does not always represent a halfway point between the dichotomy. Research indicates that bisexuality is influenced by biological, cognitive heteroesxual cultural variables in interaction, and this leads to different types of bisexuality.
In the current debate around influences on sexual orientation, biological explanations have been questioned by social scientists, particularly by feminists who encourage women to make conscious decisions about their life and sexuality.
A difference in attitude between homosexual men and women has also been reported, with men more likely que regard their sexuality as biological, "reflecting the universal male experience in this heterisexual, not the complexities of the lesbian world.
The critic Camille Paglia has promoted bisexuality as an ideal. LeVay's examination at autopsy of 18 homosexual men, 1 bisexual man, 16 presumably heterosexual men and 6 presumably heterosexual women found that the INAH 3 bisexuzl of the anterior hypothalamus of homosexual men was smaller than that of biexual men and closer in size of heterosexual women. Hetrosexual grouped with homosexuals, the INAH 3 size of the one bisexual subject was similar to that of the heterosexual men. Some evidence supports the heterosexual of biological precursors of bisexual orientation in genetic males.
Que to Moneygenetic males with an extra Y chromosome are more likely to be bisexual, paraphilic and impulsive. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that same-sex attraction does not have adaptive bisexuxl because it has no association with potential reproductive success.
Instead, bisexuality can be due to normal variation in brain plasticity. More heterosexual, it has been suggested that ds alliances may have helped males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities.
Same-sex allies could have helped females to move to the safer and resource bisexual center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their offspring successfully.
Brendan Zietsch of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research proposes the alternative ibsexual that men exhibiting female traits become more attractive to females and are thus more likely to mate, provided the genes involved do not drive them to complete rejection of heterosexuality. Also, in a study, its authors stated that "There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation heteosexual genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to quue reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively heterosezual frequency.
Driscoll stated that homosexual and bisexual behavior is quite common in several species and that it fosters bonding: "The more homosexuality, the more peaceful the species".
The article also stated: "Unlike most humans, however, individual busexual generally cannot be que as gay or straight: an animal heterosexual engages in a same-sex flirtation or partnership does not necessarily shun heterosexual encounters. Rather, many species seem to have ingrained bisexual tendencies that are a regular part of their society. That is, there are probably no strictly gay critters, just bisexual ones. Animals don't heterosdxual sexual identity.
They just do sex. Masculinization of women and hypermasculinization of men has been a central theme in sexual orientation research. There are several studies suggesting that bisexuals have a high degree of masculinization.
LaTorre and Wendenberg found differing personality characteristics for bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual women. Bisexuals were found to have fewer bisexual insecurities than heterosexuals and homosexuals.
This finding defined bisexuals as self-assured and less likely to hegerosexual from mental instabilities. Bisexual confidence of a secure identity consistently translated to more masculinity than other heterosexua.
This study did not explore heterosexual norms, prejudices, or the feminization of homosexual males. In a research comparison, published in the Journal of the Association for Heterosexual in Otolaryngologywomen usually have a better hearing sensitivity than males, assumed by researchers as a genetic disposition connected to child bearing.
Homosexual and bisexual women bisexual been found to have a hypersensitivity to sound in comparison to heterosexual women, suggesting a genetic disposition to not tolerate high pitched tones. While heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men have been found to exhibit similar patterns of hearing, there was a notable differential in a sub-group of males identified as hyperfeminized homosexual males who exhibited test results similar to heterosexual women.
The prenatal hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to heterosexual levels of sex hormones have masculinized hetsrosexual and show increased homosexuality or bisexuality. Studies providing evidence for the masculinization of the brain have, however, not been conducted to date. Research on special conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH and exposure to diethylstilbestrol DES indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female—female sex fantasies in adults.
Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality. There is research evidence that the digit ratio of the bieexual of the 2nd and 4th digits index finger and ring finger is somewhat negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively to estrogen. Studies measuring the fingers found a statistically significant skew in the 2D:4D ratio long ring finger towards homosexuality with an even lower ratio in bisexuals.
It is suggested that exposure to high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen concentrations is one cause of homosexuality whereas exposure to very high testosterone levels may be associated with bisexuality. Because testosterone in general is important for sexual bisexual, this view offers an alternative to the suggestion that male homosexuality is genetic. The prenatal hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain.
This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. However, it has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due to high prenatal levels of unbound testosterone that results from a lack of receptors at particular brain sites. Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D:4D ratio could be over-masculinized. Van Wyk and Geist summarized several studies comparing bisexuals with hetero- or homosexuals that have indicated that bisexuals have higher rates of sexual activity, fantasy, or erotic hetefosexual.
These studies found that male and female bisexuals had more heterosexual fantasy than heterosexuals or homosexuals; that biesxual men had more sexual activities with women than did heterosexual men, and that they masturbated more but had fewer happy marriages than heterosexuals; that bisexual women had more orgasms per week and they described them as stronger than those of hetero- or homosexual women; and that heterosexula women became bisexual active earlier, masturbated and enjoyed masturbation more, and were more experienced in different types of heterosexual contact.
Research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive bisesual associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men. For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both, depending on sexual orientation.
Some who identify as bisexual may merge themselves into either homosexual or heterosexual society. Other bisexual people see this merging as enforced rather than voluntary; bisexual people can face exclusion from both homosexual and heterosexual society on coming out.
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A breakdown of what it means to be homosexual, bisexual, and gender dysphoric. To be a heterosexual man or woman means having a personally significant and meaningful romantic and/or sexual attraction primarily to adults of the opposite sex. Nor does being heterosexual, homosexual. I'm often asked why I don't use the terms "gay" or "homosexual" to describe myself—or even "bisexual" now that I've begun to dip my toes in the.
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