Visualizing molecular functions and cross-species activity of Sex-peptide in Drosophila. Genetics [Epub ahead of print]. Although SP orthologs are found in many Drosophila species, their functions remain poorly characterized. It is unknown whether SP functions are conserved across species or rather specific to each species.
This study developed a GFP-tagged melSP G-SP and used it to visualize cross-species binding activity to the female reproductive system of various species. Next it was tested whether G-SP binds to the common oviducts from 11 Drosophila species using dissected reproductive tracts.
The binding was observed in six species belonging to the D. Injection of melSP reduced the receptivity of females belonging to the D. SPR was expressed in the oviducts at high levels in this group, therefore it is speculated that an enhanced expression of SPR in the oviduct was critical to establish the SP-mediated PMR during evolution Tsuda, Walker, S.
Postmating circuitry modulates salt taste processing to increase reproductive output in Drosophila. Curr Biol [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: Summary : To optimize survival and reproduction, animals must match their nutrient intake to their current needs. Reproduction profoundly changes nutritional requirements, with many species showing an appetite for sodium during reproductive periods.
How this internal state modifies neuronal information processing to ensure homeostasis is not understood. This study shows that dietary sodium levels positively affect reproductive output in Drosophila melanogaster ; to satisfy this requirement, females develop a strong, specific appetite for sodium following mating.
It was shown that mating modulates gustatory processing to increase the probability of initiating feeding on salt. This postmating effect is not due to salt depletion by egg production, since abolishing egg production leaves the sodium appetite intact. Rather, the salt appetite is induced need-independently by male-derived Sex Peptide acting on the Sex Peptide Receptor in female reproductive tract neurons.
Further, postmating appetites for both salt and yeast are driven by the resultant silencing of downstream SAG neurons. Surprisingly, unlike the postmating yeast appetite, the salt appetite does not require octopamine, suggesting a divergence in the postmating circuitry.
These findings demonstrate that the postmating circuit supports reproduction by increasing the palatability of specific nutrients. Such a feedforward regulation of sensory processing may represent a common mechanism through which reproductive state-sensitive circuits modify complex behaviors across species. Lee, H. A pair of oviduct-born Pickpocket neurons important for egg-laying in Drosophila melanogaster.
Mol Cells [Epub ahead of print]. These neurons induce a post-mating response PMR that includes elevated egglaying and refractoriness to re-mating. Exactly how ppk neurons regulate the different aspects of the PMR, however, remains unclear.
This study identifies a small subset of the ppk neurons which require expression of a pre-mRNA splicing factor CG for egg-laying, but not refractoriness to mating. Two CGppk expressing neurons were identified that innervate the upper oviduct and appear to be responsible for normal egg-laying. These results suggest specific subsets of the ppk neurons are responsible for each PMR component. Gene name - Sex Peptide Synonyms - Accessory gland peptide 70A Cytological map position - 70A4 Function - hormone Keywords - female receptivity, egg production, oogenesispostmating responses.
Tsuda, M. Garbe, D. J Biol Rhythms [Epub ahead sex print]. PubMed ID: Summary : Female Drosophila melanogaster, like many other organisms, exhibit different behavioral repertoires after mating with a male. These postmating responses PMRs include increased egg production and laying, increased rejection behavior avoiding further male advancesdecreased longevity, altered gustation and decreased sleep.
Sex Peptide SPa protein transferred from the male during copulation, is largely responsible for many of these behavioral responses, and acts through a specific circuit to induce rejection behavior and alter dietary preference.
However, less is known about the mechanisms and neurons that influence sleep in mated females. This study investigated postmating changes in female sleep across strains and ages and on different media and reports that these changes are robust and relatively consistent under a variety of conditions.
Female sleep is reduced by male-derived SP acting through the canonical sex peptide receptor SPR within the same neurons responsible for altering other PMRs. These data are consistent with the idea that mating status is communicated to the central brain through a common circuit that diverges in higher brain centers sex modify a collection of postmating sensorimotor processes.
Wigby, S. Developmental environment mediates male seminal protein investment in Drosophila melanogaster. Funct Ecol PubMed ID: Summary : Males of many species fine-tune their ejaculates in response to sperm competition risk. This study manipulated the developmental environment of Drosophila by rearing flies at low and high density, resulting in large and small adult phenotypes, respectively. Large males produced more of two key seminal proteins, sex sex SP and ovulinand were more successful at obtaining matings with both virgin and previously mated females.
However, there was only a weak and non-significant trend for large males to transfer more absolute quantities of SP at mating, and thus, small males ejaculated proportionally more of their stored accessory gland SP resources. Males transferred more receptivity-inhibiting SP to large females. Despite this, large females remated more quickly than small females and thus sex to their developmental environment over and above the quantity of SP they received.
The results are consistent with two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. First, flies might respond to condition-dependent reproductive opportunities, with 1 small males investing heavily in ejaculates when mating opportunities arise and large males strategically partitioning SP resources and 2 small females remating at reduced rates because they have higher mating costs or need to replenish sperm less often.
Second, flies may be primed by their larval environment to deal with similar adult population densities, with 1 males perceiving high density as signalling increased competition, leading small males to invest proportionally more SP resources at mating and 2 females perceiving high density as signalling abundant potential mates, leading to a higher sexual receptivity threshold. Thus, by influencing the mating frequencies of both sexes, as well as the quantity of seminal proteins produced by males and received by females, the developmental environment is likely to have far-reaching and sex-specific sex for sexual selection and sexual conflict.
Bowman, E. Reproduction regulates Drosophila nutrient intake through independent effects of egg production and sex peptide: Implications for aging. Nutr Healthy Aging 4 1 : PubMed ID: Summary : The ratio of protein to carbohydrate P:C consumed influences reproduction and lifespanoutcomes that are often maximized by different P:C intake. The purposed of this study was to determine if reproduction in female Drosophila drives elevated P:C intake and distinguish whether such a preference is driven by egg production or from male-derived sex peptides in seminal fluid.
Intake of protein and carbohydrate was measured in a diet-choice assay. Macronutrient intake was calculated for mated and unmated fertile females, mated and unmated sterile females, and both types of female when mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide. Mated females were found to have high P:C intake relative to unmated females and mated, sterile females. Fertile females mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide have high P:C intake, but sterile females have similar, low P:C intake when unmated and when mated to males lacking sex peptide.
It is concluded that the metabolic demands of egg production and sex peptides are individually sufficient to drive elevated P:C intake in adult female Drosophila. Reproductive state can thus modulate how animals consume macronutrients, which in turn can impact their health and aging. Schwenke, R. Juvenile Hormone suppresses resistance to infection in mated female Drosophila melanogaster.
Curr Biol PubMed ID: Summary : Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation sex resources to competing biological functions i.
In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responsesand this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling.
In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogastermating and the receipt of male seminal fluid proteins results in reduced resistance to a systemic bacterial infection.
This study evaluated whether the immunosuppressive effect of reproduction in female D. It was found that transfer of SP activates synthesis of JH in the mated female, which in turn suppresses resistance to infection through the receptor germ cell expressed gce.
Mated females are more likely to die from infection, suffer higher pathogen burdens, and are less able to induce their immune responses. All of these deficiencies are rescued when JH signaling is blocked. Thus, hormonal signaling is important for regulating immune system activity and, more generally, for governing trade-offs between physiological processes.
Tower, J. Biogerontology [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: Summary : Males with null mutation of Sex Peptide SP gene were compared to wild-type males for the ability to cause physiological sex in females that could be reversed by mifepristone. Expression of innate immune response transgenic reporter Drosocin -GFP is increased in females mated to wild-type males, and this expression is reduced by mifepristone.
Sex, mating increases endogenous microbial load, and this effect is reduced or absent in females fed mifepristone and in females mated to SP -null males; no loss of intestinal barrier integrity is detected using dye-leakage assay. Reduction of microbial load by treating adult flies with doxycycline reduces the effects of both mating and mifepristone on lifespan. Finally, mifepristone blocks the negative effect on life span caused by transgenic expression of SP in virgin females.
The data support the conclusion that the majority of the life span-shortening, immune-suppressive and pro-inflammatory effects of mating are due to male SP, and demonstrate that mifepristone acts in females to counteract these effects of male SP.
Fricke, C. Variation in the post-mating fitness landscape in fruitflies. J Evol Biol [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: Summary : Sperm competition is pervasive and fundamental to determining a male's overall fitness.
Sperm traits and seminal fluid proteins Sfps are key factors. However, studies of sperm competition may often exclude females that fail to remate during a defined period. Hence, the resulting datasets contain fewer data from the potentially fittest males that have most success in preventing female remating. It is also important to consider a male's reproductive success before entering sperm competition, which is a major contributor to fitness.
The exclusion of these data can both hinder understanding of the complete fitness landscapes of competing males and lessen the ability to assess the contribution of different determinants of reproductive success to male fitness. This is addressed using the Drosophila melanogaster model system, by i capturing a comprehensive range of intermating intervals that define the fitness of interacting wild type males, and ii analysing outcomes of sperm competition using selection analyses.
This allowed assessment of the comprehensive fitness effects of this important Sfp on sperm competition. However, the fitness surface for sex lacking SP was distinct, with local fitness peaks depending on contrasting combinations of remating intervals and offspring numbers.
The results suggest that there are alternative routes to success in sperm competition and provide an explanation for the maintenance of variation in sperm competition traits.
To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form. There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene. Click to get a list of regulatory features enhancers, TFBS, etc.
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete. TAGC Jump to Gene Search FlyBase. Open Close. General Information. Feature Type. Gene Model Status. Gene Sex. Sex Peptide SP encodes a peptide produced by the male accessory glands and transferred to females during mating. In mated females, it induces post-mating responses including increased egg production, decreased receptivity to mating, changes in juvenile hormone levels, in longevity and in sperm release from storage, and in feeding, digestion, and activity.
Other Summaries. Also Known As. Key Links. Genomic Location. Cytogenetic map. Recombination map. Help me choose. Other Genome Views. The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase. GO Summary Ribbons. Gene Group FlyBase. Protein Family UniProt. Belongs to the Drosophila sex peptide family.
Protein Signatures InterPro. Sex peptide. Experimental Evidence. G protein-coupled receptor binding ; protein binding. Automated Description Alliance of Genome Resources.
Alliance, FBgn Automatically Generated Summary FlyBase. They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. Binds initially to sperm where it is later cleaved to release an active peptide within the female reproductive tract. UniProt, P Acp70A: Accessory gland peptide. Encodes a amino-acid peptide that is synthesized in the accessory gland and is transferred to the female where it represses female sexual receptivity and stimulates oviposition.
The peptide contains a high concentration of basic amino acids, tryptophan and hydroxyproline as well sex an sex residue of unknown nature that is encoded by a leucine codon. Summary Interactive Fly. Interactive Fly. Gene Model and Products. Number of Transcripts.
Number of Unique Polypeptides. Protein Domains via Pfam. Isoform displayed:. InterPro name. Comments on Gene Model. Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction s not annotated. Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene. Transcript Data. Annotated Sex. Additional Transcript Data and Comments. Reported size kB. External Data. Polypeptide Data. Sex Polypeptides. Polypeptides with Identical Sequences.
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments. Reported size kDa. Post Translational Modification. Sperm-bound protein is cleaved to release an active C-terminal peptide. Gradual release from stored sperm may sex to prolong PMR and enhance male reproductive success. InterPro - A database of protein families, domains sex functional sites.
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model. Mapped Features. Feature Mapper. Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms. Gene Ontology 18 terms. Molecular Function 3 terms. Terms Sex on Experimental Evidence 2 sex. CV Sex. G protein-coupled receptor binding. Kim et al. Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions 1 term. FlyBase Curators et al. Biological Process 13 terms. Terms Based on Experimental Evidence 7 terms.
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. Findlay et al. Chapman et al. Feng et al. Haussmann et al. Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions 9 terms. Wolfner,Chapman,Greenspan and Ferveur, sex, Fan et al. Kubli,Wolfner,Chapman, Wolfner,Sex, Cellular Component 2 terms. Terms Based on Experimental Evidence 1 term. Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions 2 terms. Expression Data. Expression Summary Ribbons. Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location.
Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location. Transcript Expression. Additional Descriptive Data. Marker for. Subcellular Localization. Polypeptide Expression.
Genomic context Go to the top of the page Help. Genomic regions, transcripts, and products Go to the top of the page Help. Go to reference sequence details. Bibliography Go to the top of the page Help. Related articles in PubMed Divergence in sex peptide-mediated female post-mating responses in Drosophila melanogaster. Wensing KU, et al. Proc Biol Sci, Sep Chapman T. Am Nat, Aug. PMID Variation in the post-mating fitness landscape in fruit flies. Fricke C, et al. J Evol Biol, Jul.
Denis B, et al. J Insect Physiol, May. PMID Estimating mating rates in wild Drosophila melanogaster females by decay rates of male reproductive proteins in their reproductive tracts. Giardina TJ, et al. Mol Ecol Resour, Nov. Female lifetime reproductive success and lifespan were differently affected by sex peptide receipt indicating that female post-mating responses diverged among populations.
Title: NMR studies of the solution conformation of the sex peptide from Drosophila melanogaster. Title: Myoinhibiting peptides are the ancestral ligands of the promiscuous Drosophila sex peptide receptor.
Title: Variation in sex peptide expression in D. Title: The hydroxyproline motif of male sex peptide elicits the innate immune response in Drosophila females. Title: The sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster: female post-mating responses analyzed by using RNA interference. Title: Sex-peptide is the molecular basis of the sperm effect in Drosophila melanogaster. Interactions Go to the top of the page Help.
General gene information Go to the top of the page Help. Homology Orthologs. Inferred from Electronic Annotation more info. Non-traceable Author Statement more info. Basket 0. Your basket is currently empty.
Sex peptide receptor. Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly. Select a section on the left to see content. MIP-SPR pathway functions as a sleep homeostat which perceives the need for sleep and stabilizes it by providing a slow-acting inhibitory input to the fly arousal system that involve the pigment dispersing factor pdf neurons PubMed: The PMR switch is achieved by mediating the synaptic output of neurons such as those expressing fruitless fru , double sex dsx and pickpocket ppk PubMed: , PubMed: Life Sci.
PLoS Biol. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level. Sperm transfer and storage in the females is not affected and egg fertilization and development is normal PubMed: However, females lay fewer eggs, mate again at high frequency and do not reject a second male after mating PubMed: Male and female flies display reduced overall sleep duration associated with shorter sleep-bout lengths, although the number of sleep-bouts is not affected PubMed: Sleep recovery following sleep deprivation is also impaired PubMed: No expression in the male reproductive organs PubMed: In the central nervous system of both sexes, it is expressed in the brain and ventral nerve cord VNC ; strongly expressed in the ventral regions of the suboesophageal ganglion, the cervical connective and in many nerve roots of the brain and VNC PubMed: , PubMed: Expressed throughout development.
Highest expression is in the embryos. The information is filed in different subsections. Length: Mass Da : 50, It is useful for tracking sequence updates. The algorithm is described in the ISO standard. Full view. These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. See complete history. Do not show this banner again. G-protein coupled receptor , Receptor , Transducer.
It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first. Drosophila genome database More FlyBase i. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins. Cytoplasmic Curated. Response to MIP is less affected. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life More PaxDb i. PRIDE i. Bgee i. FBgn Expressed in 5 organ s , highest expression level in oviduct Drosophila.
Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator More Genevisible i.
Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy:. Select item s and click on "Add to basket" to create your own collection here entries max. Automatic assertion inferred from database entries i. Automatic assertion according to sequence analysis i. You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Basket 0. Your basket is currently empty. Submitted name: Sex-peptide. Drosophila suzukii Spotted-wing drosophila fruit fly. Select a section on the left to see content.
Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. The information is filed in different subsections. Length: Mass Da : 7, It is useful for tracking sequence updates.
The algorithm is described in the ISO standard. Full view. These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. See complete history. Do not show this sex again.
It lists the nodes sex they sex top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first. Drosophila genome database More FlyBase i. Integrated sex of protein families, domains sex functional sites More InterPro i. Pfam protein domain database More Pfam i. Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource More PIR i. RefSeq i. GeneID i. Database of comparative protein structure models More ModBase i.
Submit a new modelling project ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins More ProtoNet i. MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility sex More MobiDB i. Q Primary citable accession number: Q Secondary accession number s : Q This is version 46 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence.
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Sex-peptide (SP), a male seminal peptide transferred during copulation, is the Three seminal fluid peptides elicit postmating responses: ovulin, sex-peptide. Sex-peptide. Gene. SP. Organism. Drosophila suzukii (Spotted-wing drosophila fruit fly). Status Submitted name: Sex-peptideImported. Information which.
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