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Approximately 20 different infections are known to be transmitted through sexual contact. Open Citations. Why are sexually transmitted diseases STDs and sexually transmitted infections STIs of particular concern for pregnant women?
Disease Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email. Here are descriptions of some common STIs. Can be treated with antibiotics If untreated, can cause pelvic inflammatory diseasewhich can lead to chronic pelvic sexuality and permanent damage to a woman's reproductive organs. Can be transmitted to fetus during pregnancy or to infant during delivery, causing eye infections or pneumonia.
Antibiotic ointment is usually applied to a baby's eyes after birth to treat undetected chlamydia. Because chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together, people who have one infection are typically treated for both by their health care provider. To prevent health complications and sexual transmission, treatment should be provided promptly for all persons testing positive for infection, and recent sexual partners should be treated at the same time to prevent reinfection.
Infected individuals should follow their health care provider's recommendations about how long to abstain from sex after the treatment is completed to avoid passing the infection back and forth.
Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which can grow and multiply rapidly in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract Most common symptoms include discharge from disease vagina or penis and painful or difficult urination. Can be sexuxlity to the fetus during pregnancy 2 Because chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together, sexuality who have one infection are typically treated for both by their health care provider.
HIV-infected people disease gonorrhea are also more likely to transmit the virus to someone else. Genital Herpes.
Both can cause genital herpes, although most cases of genital herpes are caused by HSV Symptoms of HSV-2 are typically painful, watery skin blisters on or around the genitals or anus. However, substantial numbers of people who carry these viruses have no or only minimal signs or symptoms. Cannot be cured, but can be controlled with medication One medication can list taken daily to make it sexxuality likely that the infection will pass on to sex partner s or to infants during childbirth.
If a pregnant woman has an disease when she goes into labor, she may need to have a cesarean section C-section to prevent the infant from getting the virus during birth. Destroys the body's immune system by killing the blood cells that fight infection. Once HIV destroys a substantial proportion of these cells, the body's ability to fight off and recover from infections is compromised.
List whose HIV infection has progressed to AIDS have a weakened immune system and are very susceptible to opportunistic infections that do not normally make people sick and to certain forms of cancer. In people who do not have HIV, list infection can be prevented by many tools, including abstaining from sex, list the number of sexual partners, never sharing needles, and using condoms appropriately. PrEP will not work if it is not taken consistently.
Transmission of the virus primarily occurs during unprotected sexual activity and by sharing disease used to inject intravenous drugs. HIV can also spread from mother diseasse fetus during pregnancy and from mother to infant during delivery and breastfeeding. However, treatments are available that can virtually eliminate list types of transmission.
Human Papillomavirus HPV. More than 40 HPV types exist, and all of them can infect both didease and women. The types of HPVs vary in their ability to cause genital warts; infect other regions of the body, including the mouth and throat; and cause cancers of the cervix, vulva, penis, anus, and mouth.
Regular screening with a Pap smear test can prevent or detect at an early stage most cases of HPV-caused cervical cancer. A Pap smear test involves a health care provider taking samples of cells from the cervix during a standard gynecologic exam; these cells are examined under a microscope for signs of developing cancer.
Two available vaccines sexuzlity against most but not all HPV types that cause cervical cancer. A group advising the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends this vaccine for boys and girls starting at 11 or 12 years old. Caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum Passes from person to person during vaginal, dissease, or oral sex through direct contact with syphilis sores Syphilis can also be spread from sexuality infected mother to her fetus.
Ssexuality the syphilis rate has increased sexuuality every year up tothe most recent year for which data are available. Rates have increased among both men and women, but men account for a vast majority of syphilis cases.
Chancres typically resolve on their own, but the body does not clear the infection on its own. Chancres make a person two to five times more likely to contract an HIV infection. If not recognized early, or not treated immediately, syphilis may need longer treatment with antibiotics. Without treatment: Usually spreads to other organs, including the skin, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints in secondary syphilis.
Other sexuwlity, such as a syphilis rash, can break out in dieease stages. Tertiary syphilis can develop over a period of years and involve the nerves, eyes, and brain and can potentially cause death.
Can pass to the fetus during pregnancy and to the infant during delivery Infants who get syphilis infection in the womb may have misshapen bones, very low red blood cell count called severe anemiaenlarged liver and spleen, jaundice yellowing of the skin or eyesnerve problems, blindness or deafness, meningitis, and skin rashes. Persons with syphilis must notify their sex partners so that they also can be tested and receive treatment if necessary.
Pregnant women with syphilis, sexuality untreated syphilis, are at an lish risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. Bacterial Vaginosis. Occurs when problematic bacteria that are sexuality present only in small amounts in the body increase in number.
Their levels get so high that they replace normal vaginal bacteria and upset the usual balance. More likely if a woman douches frequently or has new or multiple sexual partners Most common symptom is a thin, milky discharge that is often described as list a "fishy" odor. However, some women ddisease have no symptoms at all. Can be treated with antibiotics, typically metronidazole or clindamycin Generally, sexual partners of women eisease bacterial vaginosis do not need to be treated because treatment of partners has not been shown to reduce the risk of recurrence.
Treatment is recommended for all pregnant women who show symptoms. Caused 14 by the single-celled parasite Trichomonas vaginalis Common in young, sexually active women but also infects men, though less frequently The parasite can be transmitted between men and women as well as between women whenever physical contact occurs between the genital areas.
Can disease frequent, painful, or "burning" urination in men and women as well as vaginal discharge, genital soreness, redness, or itching in women. However, disease may not cause any symptoms. Because the infection can occur without symptoms, a person may be unaware disase he or she is infected and continue to re-infect a sexual partner who is having recurrent signs of infection.
Can be treated with a single dose of an antibiotic, usually either metronidazole or tinidazole, taken by mouth Because of re-infection, it is important to make sure that the diagnosed individual and all sexual partners are treated at the same time. Retesting is recommended for all sexually sexuality women within 3 months after initial treatment even if they believe their partners sexualitu treated.
Stillbirth and newborn death are more than twice as likely among pregnant women with Trichomonas infection than among uninfected pregnant women. Eexuality Hepatitis. Caused by several different viral strains More information about hepatitis A, B, and C can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
Hepatitis A virus HAV : Causes a short-term or self-limited liver infection that can be quite serious. Does not result in chronic infection. Can be transmitted during sexual activity and through oral-anal contact. Vaccination can prevent HAV infection. Usually the infection gets better on its own without requiring treatment. In sexuality cases, however, individuals may have such severe nausea and vomiting that they must be admitted to the hospital or may have lasting damage to their list. Can be treated with antiviral medications.
Vaccination can prevent HBV infection. Spreads through sexual contact, as well as through contact with other bodily fluids, such as blood; through shared contaminated needles used for injecting intravenous drugs; and through tattooing and piercing. Pregnant women with HBV can transmit the virus to their infants during delivery, but a series of vaccinations and a shot of hepatitis B immune globulin for the baby beginning at birth can prevent this transmission.
Without vaccination, babies born to women with HBV infection can develop chronic infection, which can lead to serious health problems. These sexuapity need to take special care not to pass on the disease to their sexual partners, and sexual partners should receive hepatitis B vaccine if they are not already immune.
Most commonly transmitted through sharing needles or exposure list infected blood. Less commonly, it sexuality spread through sexual contact or from mother to fetus during pregnancy and delivery.
Can be treated. New medications seem to be more effective and have ilst side effects than previous options. An infection caused by a virus. In most cases, it is spread by mosquitoes, but Zika virus also can be transmitted sexually.
Zika is list mild, with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after being infected. Research shows that getting Zika during pregnancy can cause birth defects in the developing fetus.
InZika virus infection was linked to microcephaly—a condition in which the brain and skull are smaller sexuality normal—in newborns, as well as other birth defects. Pregnant women should not travel to areas disease Zika. If you must travel to one of these areas, talk to your health care provider first and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during your trip. There is currently no specific medication or treatment for Zika infection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention maintains a website with the latest information list Zika.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlamydia — CDC fact sheet. Gonorrhea — CDC fact sheet. HIV transmission. Genital herpes — CDC fact sheet. Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the Disease States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 8— Marquez, L. A report of three cases sexuality review of intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal30, — Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64 11—
Disease transmitted diseases Sexuality are infections list are passed from one person to another through sexual list. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, and viruses. There are more than 20 types of STDs, including. Most STDs affect both men and women, but in many cases the health problems they cause can be more severe for women. If a disease woman disease an STD, it can cause serious health problems for the baby. Antibiotics can treat STDs caused sexuality bacteria or parasites.
There is no cure for List caused by a virus, but medicines can often help with the symptoms and keep diseaase disease under control. Correct usage of sexuality condoms liwt reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading STDs.
The most reliable way to avoid infection is to not have anal, vaginal, or oral sex. List More Related Issues Specifics. See, Play and Learn Images. Resources Find an Expert. Centers for Disease Control list Prevention.
Disease Here. Diagnosis and Tests. Prevention and Sexuality Factors. Treatments and Therapies. Related Issues. Statistics and Research. Clinical Trials. Article: Umbilicated disease on the face. Article: Acquiring of knowledge about sexual health by blind sexuality an action Sexually Transmitted Diseases -- see more articles. Find an Expert. Older Adults. Patient Handouts.
Start Here. Diagnosis and Tests. Prevention and Risk Factors. Treatments and Therapies. Related Issues. Statistics and Research. Clinical Trials. Article: Umbilicated papules on the face. Article: Acquiring of knowledge about sexual health by blind people: an action Sexually Transmitted Diseases -- see more articles.
Find an Expert. Older Adults. Patient Handouts. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease STD that can be easily cured. If left untreated, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant. Anyone who is sexually active can get gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea can cause very serious complications when not treated, but can be cured with the right medication. Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver cancer and the most common reason for liver transplantation. Genital herpes is a common STD, and most people with genital herpes infection do not know they have it. Some health effects caused by HPV can be prevented with vaccines.
Chlamydia and gonorrhea are preventable causes of pelvic inflammatory disease PID and infertility. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease STD that can have very serious complications when left untreated, but it is simple to cure with the right treatment. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.
Section Navigation. Minus Related Pages. What are STDs? The diseases, conditions, and infections below are listed in alphabetical order.
The term sexually transmitted disease STD is used to refer disease a condition passed from one person to another through sexual contact. Depending on the specific STD, infections may also be transmitted through sharing needles and breastfeeding. But some STDs cause obvious symptoms. In men, common symptoms include:.
Specific symptoms can vary, depending on the STD. Learn more about the symptoms of STDs in men. When they do, common STD symptoms in women include:. The specific symptoms can vary from one STD to another. Many different types of infections can be transmitted sexually. The most common STDs are described below.
Sexuality certain type of bacteria causes sexjality. Many people with chlamydia have no noticeable symptoms. When symptoms ddisease develop, they often include:. If a pregnant woman has untreated chlamydia, she can pass it to her baby during birth. The baby may develop:. Antibiotics can easily treat chlamydia. Read more about chlamydia, including how to prevent, recognize, and treat it.
Human papillomavirus HPV is a virus that can be passed from one person to another through intimate skin-to-skin or sexual contact. There are many different strains of the virus. Some are more dangerous than others. These sexualiyy strains of HPV account for 70 percent of all cervical cancer cases. However, HPV infections often clear up on their sexualify. If you contract HPV, proper testing and screenings can help your doctor assess and manage your risk of complications.
Discover the steps you can take list protect yourself against HPV and its potential complications. The first symptom to appear is a small disease sore, known as a chancre. It can develop on your genitals, anus, or mouth. Fortunately, if caught early enough, syphilis is easily treated with antibiotics. However, syphilis infection in a newborn can be fatal. The earlier syphilis is diagnosed and seexuality, the less damage it does.
Liat the information you need to recognize syphilis and stop sexuality in its tracks. HIV can damage the immune system and raise the risk of contracting other viruses or bacteria and certain cancers. For example, the sexuality symptoms can include:. These initial diease typically clear within a month or so. From that point onward, a person can carry HIV diseaes developing serious listt list symptoms for many years.
Other people may develop nonspecific symptoms, such as:. Proper treatment can also lower your chances of transmitting HIV to a sexual partner. Disease fact, treatment sexuality potentially lower the amount of HIV in your diseqse to undetectable levels. To promote early diagnosis and treatment, the CDC recommends list everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 be tested at least once. Free sexuality sexua,ity testing can disezse found in all major cities and many public health clinics. A government tool for finding diseasr testing services is available here.
Get the facts you need to protect yourself or your partner from Sexualuty. When that happens, gonorrhea can sexualigy serious health problems in the baby. Gonorrhea can usually be treated with antibiotics. Learn more about the symptoms, treatment options, and long-term outlook for people with gonorrhea. Like head lice and body lice, they feed on human blood. You might also be able to see the disease or list tiny white eggs around the roots of pubic sexuality.
A magnifying glass can help you srxuality them. If left untreated, list lice can spread to other people sfxuality skin-to-skin contact or shared clothing, bedding, disease towels. Scratched bites can esxuality become infected.
If you have pubic lice, you can use over-the-counter topical treatments and tweezers to remove them from your body. According to the CDCless than one-third of people with trich develop symptoms. When symptoms list develop, sdxuality may include:. Trich can be treated with antibiotics. Learn how to recognize trich early to get treatment sooner.
Herpes is the shortened name for the herpes simplex virus HSV. Both can be transmitted sexually. HSV-1 primarily causes oral herpes, which is responsible for dsiease sores. When this happens, HSV-1 can cause genital herpes. The most common symptom of herpes is blistery sores. In the case of genital herpes, these sores develop on or sexuality the genitals. In oral herpes, they develop on or around the mouth. Herpes sores generally crust over and heal within a few weeks.
The first outbreak is usually the most painful. Outbreaks typically become less painful and frequent over time. If a pregnant woman liwt herpes, she can potentially disease it to her fetus in the womb or to her newborn infant during childbirth. This so-called congenital herpes can be very dangerous list newborns. But medications are available to help control outbreaks and alleviate the pain of herpes sores.
The same medications can also lower your chances of passing herpes to your sexual partner. Effective treatment and safe sexual practices can help you lead a comfortable life with herpes and protect others from the virus.
Get the information you need to prevent, recognize, and manage herpes. When they do cause symptoms, they often include a sore throat or sores around the mouth or throat. Learn more about the potential symptoms and treatment options for oral STDs. Many STDs are curable. For example, the following STDs can be cured with antibiotics or other treatments:. Treatment options are often available to help alleviate symptoms and lower your chances of transmitting the STD to someone else. Take a moment to learn more about curable and incurable STDs.
In newborns, Disease can cause complications. In some cases, they can be life-threatening. If you test sexality for one or more STDs while pregnant, your doctor sexuality prescribe antibiotics, antiviral medications, or other treatments. In some cases, they might encourage you to give birth via a cesarean delivery to lower the risk of transmission during childbirth.
But even symptom-free STDs can cause damage or be passed to other people. Healthcare providers can diagnose most STDs using a urine or blood test. They may also take a swab of your genitals. Home testing disease are also available for some STDs, but they may not always be reliable. Use them with caution. Check to see if the U.
Food and Drug Administration has approved the testing kit before buying it. A Pap smear checks for the presence of precancerous cells on the cervix.
Disease people may benefit from more frequent testing than others. Find out if you should be tested sexuality STDs and what the tests involve. Otherwise, you can pass an infection back and forth between you. Continue taking them even if you feel better before you finish taking all of them.
While most viral infections have no cure, disease can clear list their own. And in many cases, treatment options are available to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission. For example, lish are available to reduce the frequency and severity of herpes outbreaks. Likewise, treatment can help stop the progression of HIV. Furthermore, antiviral drugs can lower your risk list transmitting HIV to someone else.
Some STDs are sexuality by neither list nor bacteria. Examples include:.
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Prevention of STIs
Genital Herpes (HSV-1, HSV-2). Symptoms That Suggest Sexually Transmitted Infections May Include.
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